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Bones and Joints In this presentation you will: Identify major bones of the body Identify the structure and composition of bone Identify different joint.

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Presentation on theme: "Bones and Joints In this presentation you will: Identify major bones of the body Identify the structure and composition of bone Identify different joint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bones and Joints In this presentation you will: Identify major bones of the body Identify the structure and composition of bone Identify different joint types ClassAct SRS enabled.

2 Bones and Joints Next > The human skeleton is made up of bone and cartilage. These tissues make up what is known as an ‘endoskeleton’, that is, a skeleton that grows inside the body. It grows steadily with the body and adapts to the requirements of the body at different stages of life. In this presentation you will discover the basic functions of your skeleton. You will see the structure of the different bones and joints that make up your skeleton.

3 Bones and Joints The Skeleton Your skeleton has 4 basic functions. Protection: It provides protection to the soft organs of the body. Blood: The bone marrow of certain bones produce blood cells. Support: It works with the muscles to provide support so the body can maintain its shape. Movement: It works with the muscles to provide movement. Next >

4 Bones and Joints Humans have endoskeletons. This means that the skeleton is located inside the body. A mature human skeleton is made up of 206 bones. Next > Axial Skeleton Appendicular Skeleton It is divided into the: The Skeleton

5 Bones and Joints The bones that make up the skeleton are varied. There are 4 groups. Next > Long bones: These are longer than they are thick. Short bones: These are small and allow large freedom of movement. Types of Bones Flat bones: These have a large surface area for muscle attachment. Irregular bones: These have complex shapes and specialized functions.

6 Bones and Joints Bones of the Skeleton Next > Parts of the skeleton are divided into sections. Cranium Mandible Vertebra Coccyx Skull Vertebral column Leg Sacrum Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Foot Clavicle Sternum Ribs Humerus Radius Ulna Hand Pelvic girdle Rib cage Pectoral girdle Arm Scapular Hip bone Pubis

7 Bones and Joints 1 What long bone is shown in the picture? Question A) Femur B) Vertebrae C) Clavicle D) Sternum

8 Bones and Joints 2 The radius and ulna are bones of the... Question A)... leg B)... rib cage C)... arm D)... pelvis

9 Bones and Joints 3 This picture shows the axial skeleton highlighted in red. Answer True or False. Question

10 Bones and Joints A cross section of the upper section of a femur. Bone has 2 forms: Dense and heavy compact bone. Next > Light spongy bone. Together these help to make bone light and strong. Bone Structure Spongy bone and the spaces inside some bones are filled with bone marrow. Yellow marrow stores fat. Red marrow makes blood cells. Bone marrow is found in the spine, sternum, collar bone, skull, humerus, and femur. Compact bone Spongy bone Bone marrow

11 Bones and Joints Compact bone Spongy bone Compact Bone Compact bone is denser than spongy bone. Each osteon consists of tubes of bone matrix that are arranged in layers one inside the next. At the center of the osteon is the haversian canal that contains blood vessels and nerves. Osteons give compact bone the strength to resist being twisted and stretched. Next > It is made up of tiny cylinders called osteons. Osteon Matrix Haversian canal Blood vessel Nerve

12 Bones and Joints Spongy Bone Spongy bone combines lightness and strength. Trabeculae make spongy bone light. Next > It has tiny spaces and narrow supporting branches that are called trabeculae. Spaces Trabeculae They are arranged to provide maximum resistance to pressure and stress. A cross section of the head of a femur.

13 Bones and Joints Bone contains cells that live in the matrix. These cells work together to keep the bone healthy. Next > Calcium phosphate: A mineral salt which makes bone hard. Bone Matrix Collagen: A protein which gives bone flexibility and strength to resist stretching and twisting. Bone cell Bone matrix Bone matrix is what gives bone its color. It has 2 main ingredients.

14 Bones and Joints Osteocytes can communicate with each other via threads in the bone matrix called canaliculi. Next > There are 2 other types of bone cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts live in the bone. They build bone by secreting new matrix. Osteocytes Osteoclasts are made in the bone marrow and remove old bone matrix. Osteocytes keep bone in good condition and live isolated inside spaces in the bone called lacunas. Osteocyte Bone matrix Lacuna Canaliculi

15 Bones and Joints Osteoclasts and Bone Strength Osteoclasts absorb bone matrix and this activity enables bones to adapt to meet the stresses and strains they are subjected to. When bones are put under stress piezoelectric currents run through them. Next > These currents stimulate the formation of bone tissue in the lines of load bearing. A cross section of the head section of a femur. This means that bone tissue is formed where it is needed and absorbed where it is not. Spongy bone formation in the lines of load bearing

16 Bones and Joints This picture shows a cross section of the upper section of a femur. Which label represents the spongy bone? Enter your answer and press Send. Question4

17 Bones and Joints This picture shows the head of a femur. Which label represents the compact bone? Enter your answer and press Send. Question5

18 Bones and Joints 6 Trabeculae is present in spongy bone. Answer True or False. Question

19 Bones and Joints No movement Joints The points where bones meet are called joints. Joints can allow bones to move. Next > Fixed: Skull and pelvis. Swivel: Neck Sliding: Wrist and ankle Ball and Socket: Shoulder and hip Saddle: Thumb Hinge: Elbow, finger, knee and toe. The following types allow different degrees of movement: Least Most Movement

20 Bones and Joints Synovial Joints Humerus Ulna Synovial membrane Synovial Fluid Cartilage Fat Ligament Most Joints are synovial joints. Here is the elbow joint. All synovial joints have the same basic structure, but differ in shape. Synovial joints contain cartilage and synovial fluid that allows the bones to move easily. Next >

21 Bones and Joints Joint Structure To enable controlled movement of joints, muscles need to be attached to the bones. Next > This arrangement supports the skeleton and provides attachment for muscles, making movement easy and pain free. Tendons on either side of the joint attach muscles to the bone. Ligaments hold the bones in position Here is a model of a knee joint. Ligament Fibula Tibia Tendon Femur Muscle Patella

22 Bones and Joints 7 Which picture represents a sliding joint? Question A) B) C) D)

23 Bones and Joints 8 Where on the body is a ball and socket joint found? Question A) Shoulder B) Ankle C) Thumb D) Elbow

24 Bones and Joints 9 Which picture represents a saddle joint? Question A) B) C) D)

25 Bones and Joints Summary After completing this presentation you should be able to: Identify major bones of the body Identify the structure and composition of bone Identify different joint types End >


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