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Thirty Years War Review 1618-1648. Characteristics The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground. At the beginning it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants.

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Presentation on theme: "Thirty Years War Review 1618-1648. Characteristics The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground. At the beginning it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thirty Years War Review

2 Characteristics The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground. At the beginning it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants. At the end it was political rivals taking advantage of fragmentation. Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.

3 Political Provisions:  Each German prince became free from any kind of control by the HR Emperor.  The United Provinces [Dutch Netherlands] became officially independent  France received most of the German-speaking province of Alsace.  Switzerland became totally independent of the HRE - Swiss Confederation. The Peace of Westphalia 1648

4 Religious Provisions:  Calvinists Princes would have the same privileges as the Lutherans had in the Peace of Augsburg.  The ruler of each state could determine its official religion, BUT  must permit freedom of private worship. The Peace of Westphalia 1648

5 Results Attempt to reunite Catholic Europe ended Spain in period of decline National interest, not religion, dominated international affairs Military revolution -Gunpowder, cannons -Calvary became obsolete -Large, well organized armies

6 English Civil War Review

7 Issue Can the king govern without the consent of the people (parliament)?

8 Charles I Charles I ( ) inherited English and Scottish thrones, and a huge debt In exchange for higher taxes, Parliament demanded, Petition of Right (1628 No taxation without consent of Parliament No imprisonment without due process (trial) No quartering of soldiers in private homes

9 Parliament of 1629 After signing the Petition of Right, The king dissolved Parliament Did not call Parliament into session again for 11 years

10 Scotland Church of England (Anglican) only legal Church All others repressed National Covenant of Scotland (1638) Scottish affirm loyalty to crown, declared King could not appoint bishops in Scotland War breaks out between England and Scotland

11 The Long Parliament ( ) King summoned Parliament in Needed money Abolished Royal Courts writ of habeas corpus - no imprisonment without cause Ruled parliament must meet at least every 3 years

12 Prelude to War Puritans in Parliament -Led by Oliver Cromwell Demanded religious reform -abolition of Anglican Book of Prayer Grand Remonstrance -Bishops be denied votes in House of Lords

13 Prelude to War Charles tried to arrest 5 leaders of H.O.C Parliament resisted, citizens of London sheltered the leaders Royalist (Cavaliers) and Antiroyalist (Roundheads) begin to assemble armies

14 Civil War Antiroyalist led by Oliver Cromwell -New Model Army -Used religion to motivate soldiers Forced Charles to surrender

15 Antiroyalist Split Independents- wanted churches to be free of central authority. Led by Cromwell Presbyterians- establish strictly organized Calvinist system. Like Scotland Presbyterians and Scots backed Charles I New Model Army is victorious, -captured the King

16 Civil War Independents abolish H.O.L. All Presbyterians removed from Parliament Charles tried and executed in 1649 Parliament, led by Cromwell, now in charge

17 New Political Ideas Levelers - all men eligible to vote for Parliament Diggers - abolish private property

18 Cromwell’s Government Military dictatorship -“lord Protector” England divided up and controlled by 11 generals Banned newspapers Enlisted innkeepers as spies

19 Invasion of Ireland Ireland invaded Catholics defeated Land divided among Cromwell’s soldiers

20 Cromwell’s Government Parliament offered Cromwell crown, he refused Monarch in all but name Named his son successor

21 End of revolution Son, Richard, unable to control generals Generals took control, invited Charles II to return from exile Monarchy restored in 1660

22 Glorious Revolution 1688 James II succeeded Charles -Strong Roman Catholic -Wanted to return England to Catholicism Parliament invited William and Mary to take the throne James fled

23 Glorious Revolution 1688 William and Mary made co-rulers Sign English Bill of Rights Grant limited religious freedom

24 Domination of Parliament Power in government dominated by Parliament Parliament dominated by Gentry


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