Presentation on theme: "Key Terms – England in the 17 th Century Charles I Divine Right Petition of Right William Laud English Civil War Cavaliers Roundheads Oliver Cromwell Lord."— Presentation transcript:
Key Terms – England in the 17 th Century Charles I Divine Right Petition of Right William Laud English Civil War Cavaliers Roundheads Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector New Model Army Charles II The Restoration Habeas Corpus Whigs Tories James II The Glorious Revolution English Bill of Rights William and Mary
Charles I (1625-1648) Second king of the Stuart Dynasty in England Believed in divine right → belief that rulers are chosen by god and therefore are only held accountable by God Was at war with Spain, demanded funds from Parliament → dissolves Parliament when he is refused
Charles I's Actions Attempts to raise the money for war on his own by: Lodging unfair taxes Forcing loans from citizens, mostly knights and nobles Imposing illegal fines for petty infractions Parliament would attempt to get Charles to sign the Petition of Right Document that was to limit the power of the king and reinforce the Magna Carta
William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury Attempted to create a Church of Scotland that mimicked the Church of England Would lead to an uprising among the Scots Forces Charles to work with Parliament
English Civil War 1643-1649 Charles would be forced to sign the Petition of Right which he would later dissolve. Charles would also attempt to remove a few leaders of Parliament which led to the beginning of the English Civil War → Charles would be forced to hide in Scotland
Cavaliers vs. Roundheads Cavaliers (Royalists) Mostly Catholic Upper class citizens Had control over most of England Supported Charles I Roundheads Mostly Protestant Middle and lower class citizens Had control over most of the money within England Supported Parliament
Oliver Cromwell (1654-1658) Chosen by Parliament to lead their troops against Charles I Created the New Model Army → military force of Parliament Was able to defeat the Royalists and claim control of England Became Lord Protector → military dictator of England
The Fate of Charles I
Charles II (1660-1685) Shortly after the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658 in Ireland, the English selected Charles II as the next king He did not believe in divine right and shared power with Parliament → considered a limited monarchy
The Restoration The Restoration is the period of time during the reign of Charles II where Parliament's power and the cultural conventions of England removed by Oliver Cromwell were restored. Individual rights were given more protection via the Writ of Habeas Corpus → act that stated that an arrested individual could obtain a writ that would allow him to see a judge within a specific period of time and at that point it would be decided whether he would be tried for a crime or released.
The Creation of Political Parties Supporters of the king having more power than Parliament were known as Tories Supporters of Parliament having more power than the king were known as Whigs. The creation of these two parties would spark the beginning of the growth of democracy in England
James II (1685-1689) Younger brother of Charles II Believed in divine right Was very Catholic Was disliked by Parliament Inspired the fear that Catholicism would return to England.
The Glorious Revolution Parliament would request that James' daughter Mary and her husband William rule England in place of James II. William would march on London forcing James II flight to France → this would be considered the Glorious Revolution
William and Mary (jointly 1689-1694) Officially known as William II (1689-1704) and Mary II(1689-1694). Would rule jointly until Mary's death in 1694. Would sign the English Bill of Rights → clearly delineated that Parliament would have more power than the king Became the basis for other countries' bill of rights.