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Oliver Cromwell & the Restoration

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1 Oliver Cromwell & the Restoration
Chapter 14, Section 2

2 James I, Charles I and Divine Right
After Elizabeth I died with no heirs, her cousin’s son James of Scotland became the king of England. James believed in the divine right of kings—meaning he got his position because God wanted him to have it and therefore he was only answerable to God. Meanwhile, the British Parliament did not like this idea. The Parliament wanted the king to rule with parliament. James’ son, Charles I, also believed in the divine right of kings. He would not allow the Parliament to limit his power in any way.

3 Puritans In England, the growing Puritan religion was based on the ideas of John Calvin. They believed the Church of England was too close to Catholicism and wanted an even “purer” religion. Many members of Parliament converted to Puritanism. They held a lot of power because they were also wealthy landowners. Charles I was in the meantime making the Church of England more ritualistic—which Puritans opposed. Charles forced Puritans to accept his religion. This led many Puritans to leave England for religious freedom in America.

4 Civil War The conflict between religions and between the king and Parliament eventually led to a civil war in 1642. Those who supported the king were called Cavaliers and those who supported the Parliament were called Roundheads. The parliament was able to win the civil war, thanks to Oliver Cromwell, who was skilled at leading the military. Cromwell created the New Model Army, with mostly extreme Puritans as soldiers. They believed they were fighting for God.

5 Commonwealth under Cromwell
Cromwell declared England a commonwealth (a republic). This meant England no longer would have a monarch. Cromwell purged Parliament of anyone who had not supported him. He also had Charles I executed in 1649. The Parliament and Cromwell still had disagreements, so Cromwell got rid of it. This meant England was no longer a republic. Cromwell set up a military dictatorship with himself as the dictator.

6 England Under Cromwell
Cromwell was named “protector” instead of king in 1653. He created the “Blue Laws” in 1650 which forbade against blasphemy, cursing, drunkenness, and adultery. He also opposed dancing, singing, theater, etc. as a Puritan.

7 The Restoration Cromwell died in 1658.
George Monk, one of Cromwell’s generals, was afraid that after Cromwell’s death, England would fall back into a civil war over who should rule. Monk decided to restore the monarchy with his army. He had Charles II, Charles I’s son who was living in exile, come back to England in 1660. Things seemed stable in England for a while when Charles II returned, and Parliament was allowed to keep much of its previous power.

8 Charles II and James II Parliament tried to restrict the rights of Catholics and Puritans. Charles II’s mother was Catholic, so the Parliament was suspicious of him. James’ brother was Catholic as well. Charles II left no heirs, so his Catholic brother James became King James II in 1685. The Parliament disliked James II’s religion and his appointment of Catholics to high offices. They believed that after he died, however, one of his Protestant daughters would take over. When James had a son in 1688 with his second wife, also Catholic, the members of Parliament became concerned that they would end up with a Catholic monarchy.

9 The Glorious Revolution
English nobles asked Mary, Charles II’s Protestant daughter, and her husband William of Orange (in the Netherlands) to invade England. William wanted to take over England so that he could fight France with more resources. William invaded his father-in-law’s country in Many of James II’s troops deserted because they wanted to be ruled by William instead. There was very little bloodshed involved in the Glorious Revolution. William and Mary gave Parliament the right to make laws and collect taxes. Parliament’s approval was also needed to raise an army for war. They also issued a Bill of Rights for all citizen that gave them the right to bear arms and have a trial by jury. The Glorious Revolution created a constitutional monarchy in England, which limited the power of the king and queen. In 1689, the Parliament approved the Toleration Act that gave Puritans the right to worship in public. Catholics were not given this right.

10 References "Oliver Cromwell." A&E Television Networks. Web. 30 Apr

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