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Parliament Limits the English Monarchy.  Parliament is England’s legislature; they “held the purse strings”  Parliament’s financial power was an obstacle.

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Presentation on theme: "Parliament Limits the English Monarchy.  Parliament is England’s legislature; they “held the purse strings”  Parliament’s financial power was an obstacle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy

2  Parliament is England’s legislature; they “held the purse strings”  Parliament’s financial power was an obstacle to English rulers becoming absolute monarchs  In 1603, James I becomes king; doesn’t want to share any power with Parliament  Fought with Puritans who wanted the church to be less like Catholic churches  James I didn’t make any major changes, but he did have a new translation of the Bible

3  1625 Charles I becomes king - absolute monarch  Charles needs money for war with Spain and France  When Parliament refuses to give him money, he dissolves it (cancels it)  1628 recalls Parliament to give him money  Parliament won’t give it to him until he signs the “Petition of Right” -law was higher than the king Contradicted absolute monarchy no taxes w/out consent no quartering of troops no imprisonment w/out cause no martial law  Charles signs it, then ignores it

4  1629 – Charles dissolves Parliament again and refuses to call it back - Gets money by fees and fines on the English people - Makes him very unpopular  Charles wants English & Scottish in Anglican Church Scots rebel - Charles needs $$$ to fight them  Needs Parliament, this as an opportunity to oppose him - Parliament passes laws limiting royal power  Charles tries to arrest Parliament’s leaders, but they escape  Riots force Charles to flee London and raise an army in the north

5  Charles fights back and Civil War begins (1642 – 1649) Supporters of Charles and the monarchy – Cavaliers Supporters of Parliament – Roundheads  Leader of the Roundheads – Oliver Cromwell, Puritan Leads New Model Army  Roundheads defeat Cavaliers

6 Roundheads and Cavaliers

7  Charles I is tried for treason against Parliament and executed  First time in Europe that a ruling monarch had been tried publicly and executed by his own people  Parliament shows that in England, no ruler can claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law Horrible History

8 Execution of Charles I

9  After Charles is executed, Cromwell abolishes the monarchy  Declares England a republic - Commonwealth  1 st Constitution of any modern European state is written However by:  1653 – Cromwell sends home Parliament  Cromwell tears it up and becomes a military dictator

10  Cromwell immediately puts down a rebellion in Ireland  In England, Cromwell and Puritans want to reform society by promoting Puritan morality No theater, sports or dancing Religious toleration for all Christians except Catholics

11  Cromwell rules until death 1658 - tired of strict Puritanism and strict military rule  Parliament asks Charles I’s son to rule England - Charles II comes to London amid cheering and happiness; becomes monarch in 1660  Called Restoration - the monarchy returned to throne

12  Under Charles II, Parliament passes an important guarantee of freedom, habeas corpus 1679 Prisoners have right to know the charges against them and could not be held indefinitely without a trial A monarch could not put someone in jail simply for opposing the ruler  Charles has no heir - Parliament debated who should inherit Charles’s throne - His brother James, a Catholic was in line to be King

13  1685 Charles II dies & James II becomes king; openly Catholic  Appoints Catholics to high office - Parliament protests, so James dissolves it (again)  Worried Protestants ask his daughter Mary and her husband William, who are Protestants, to become ruler  William leads his army into London in 1688  James II flees – known as the Glorious Revolution, the bloodless overthrow of the King James II

14 Coronation of William and Mary

15  William and Mary - accept Parliament as a partner in governing  England becomes a constitutional monarchy, where laws limit the ruler’s power  Parliament writes the English Bill of Rights in 1689, listing things a monarch could not do: Suspend any of Parliament’s laws No levying taxes without Parliament’s approval No interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament No penalty for citizens who petitions the king about grievances (complaints)

16  After 1688, no British monarch could rule without the consent of Parliament And Parliament could not rule without the consent of the monarch If they disagreed, government came to a standstill  Settled by development of a cabinet, a group of officials who acted in ruler’s name, but in reality represented the majority party of Parliament; a link between monarch and Parliament  Eventually, the leader of the majority party in Parliament became the prime minister

17 So… England differs from most of Europe at the time by NOT having an absolute monarchy Instead, they have a constitutional monarchy in which the monarch’s power is limited!

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