Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Journal: From Wedding Reception to Massacre On August 24, 1572, the feast of St. Bartholomew, thousands of French Calvinists known as Huguenots were in.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Journal: From Wedding Reception to Massacre On August 24, 1572, the feast of St. Bartholomew, thousands of French Calvinists known as Huguenots were in."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Journal: From Wedding Reception to Massacre On August 24, 1572, the feast of St. Bartholomew, thousands of French Calvinists known as Huguenots were in Paris. They were celebrating the wedding of the Protestant Henry of Navarre to the sister of the king of France. This wedding was to unite the Protestant and Catholic parties in France and end the sectarian warfare that was tearing the country apart. The queen mother, Catherine de Medici, had other ideas. She persuaded the young king to order the elimination of all the Huguenot leaders. Mobs took over in a frenzy of killing. Between 2,000 and 3,000 Huguenots were killed in what has become known as the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. Once more, civil war broke out in France. On August 24, 1572, the feast of St. Bartholomew, thousands of French Calvinists known as Huguenots were in Paris. They were celebrating the wedding of the Protestant Henry of Navarre to the sister of the king of France. This wedding was to unite the Protestant and Catholic parties in France and end the sectarian warfare that was tearing the country apart. The queen mother, Catherine de Medici, had other ideas. She persuaded the young king to order the elimination of all the Huguenot leaders. Mobs took over in a frenzy of killing. Between 2,000 and 3,000 Huguenots were killed in what has become known as the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. Once more, civil war broke out in France. What finally happened in the French wars of religion to establish peace and tranquility? What finally happened in the French wars of religion to establish peace and tranquility?

3 Journal: The Spanish Armada Journal: The Spanish Armada As the Great Armada Católica set sail from Spain in the spring of 1588, the commander, Medina Sidonia, was concerned. The water and other supplies stored in the wooden casks on board the ships were spoiling. Many of the casks were defective. The English privateer Sir Francis Drake had raided Spain the year before and had burned many barrels intended for the armada supplies. New casks were built, but the staves were not seasoned wood. This caused leaks and spoilage. The Armada seemed doomed from the beginning. What was the result of the Spanish Armada, both immediately and in the long run? What was the result of the Spanish Armada, both immediately and in the long run?

4 Journal: Glorious Revolution In 1688, the English chased out King James II and offered the crown to a Dutchman known as William of Orange. King William III ruled jointly with his English wife, Mary – the first time in English history that husband and wife ruled together as equals. This event was known as the Glorious Revolution. In 1688, the English chased out King James II and offered the crown to a Dutchman known as William of Orange. King William III ruled jointly with his English wife, Mary – the first time in English history that husband and wife ruled together as equals. This event was known as the Glorious Revolution. Why exactly was it “glorious”? Why exactly was it “glorious”?

5 TAKS Practice Question Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. The controversy that led to the English “Glorious Revolution” was The controversy that led to the English “Glorious Revolution” was a) A Tudor-Stuart struggle for the throne. b) The restoration of a monarch in England. c) Increased religious freedom for Catholics. d) A power struggle between Parliament and the king. Test-Taking Tip: Remember the date of the Glorious Revolution to help eliminate answers.

6 TAKS Practice Question Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Which one of the following ideas is common to both the U.S. Bill of Rights and the English Bill of Rights? Which one of the following ideas is common to both the U.S. Bill of Rights and the English Bill of Rights? a) Restriction on the housing of soldiers in citizens’ homes b) Protection from involuntary search and seizure c) Trial by jury for all citizens accused of a crime d) Limitations of the power of the federal government Test-Taking Tip: Try to eliminate answers when comparing- contrasting items.

7 Journal: Louis XIV Louis XIV rarely talked at meals. He preferred to eat – in huge quantities. A typical supper for Louis was four bowls of soup, an entire chicken, a pheasant, two slices of ham, a salad, some mutton, pastry, fruit, and hard- boiled eggs. Louis’s dinner was often a ritual. It could be eaten “au petit couvert” (with family and friends) or “au grand couvert” (a state banquet with many attendants). Occasionally, Louis would dine “au public.” This meant tourists could go to Versailles to watch the king eat. The public would move in through one door and out another in a line while the king consumed his meal. Louis had many ways to keep the public enthralled with his role as the Sun King. How did the building of his palace at Versailles reinforce the notion that Louis was the center of the French nation? How did the building of his palace at Versailles reinforce the notion that Louis was the center of the French nation?

8 Chapter 14 Crisis & Absolutism in Europe Section 1 - Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion Section 2 - Social Crises, War & Revolution

9 The French Wars of Religion Calvinism Catholicism Huguenots (French Protestants) Catholics 7% of total population 50% of nobility House of Bourbon (next in line) Valois Dynasty Civil War

10 French Wars of Religion 1589: Henry IV (Huguenot) is crowned king of France 1589: Henry IV (Huguenot) is crowned king of France Has no support from Catholics… decides to convert to Catholicism Has no support from Catholics… decides to convert to Catholicism

11 1598: Issued the Edict of Nantes Recognized Catholicism as France’s official religion, but gave the Huguenots the right to worship Edict of Nantes: First state document to show religious tolerance and the idea of religious freedom.

12 The England of Elizabeth 1558: Elizabeth Tudor ascended to the throne of England 1558: Elizabeth Tudor ascended to the throne of England Protestant Queen – “the only supreme governor” Protestant Queen – “the only supreme governor” Tried to keep Spain & France from becoming too powerful Tried to keep Spain & France from becoming too powerful

13 Elizabeth I The “Virgin” Queen – never married

14 The England of Elizabeth Philip II of Spain was married to Mary (“Bloody Mary,” sister to Elizabeth) Philip II of Spain was married to Mary (“Bloody Mary,” sister to Elizabeth) Philip II desperately wanted to conquer England Philip II desperately wanted to conquer England 1588, Spain sent an armada to invade England 1588, Spain sent an armada to invade England Battered by storms in the English Channel and the British fleet Battered by storms in the English Channel and the British fleet

15 Military Tactics 101: Island nations almost always have an excellent navy!

16 Portrait of Elizabeth commemorating the defeat of the Spanish Armada (Symbols?)

17 Revolutions in England English Revolution English Revolution Parliament vs. the King Parliament vs. the King Who has the power to govern? Who has the power to govern? James I James I Divine Right of Kings: that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God Divine Right of Kings: that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God Parliament wanted an equal role Parliament wanted an equal role

18 Church & State Puritans wanted church to be more Protestant (went against the King) Puritans wanted church to be more Protestant (went against the King) Many Puritans served in the House of Commons, which gave them power Many Puritans served in the House of Commons, which gave them powerEnglishParliament House of Commons Lower House Large # of Representatives House of Lords Upper House Small # of Representatives

19 Charles I vs. Parliament 1628: Parliament passed petition that prohibited passing taxes without Parliament’s consent 1628: Parliament passed petition that prohibited passing taxes without Parliament’s consent King agrees to petition and then, later changes his mind King agrees to petition and then, later changes his mind Charles imposes Catholic practices on the Church of England Charles imposes Catholic practices on the Church of England Puritans move to America rather than adhere to religious policies Puritans move to America rather than adhere to religious policies

20 Civil War Parliament won; led by military genius, Oliver Cromwell Parliament won; led by military genius, Oliver Cromwell Got rid of non-supporters and executed Charles I in 1649 Got rid of non-supporters and executed Charles I in 1649 Abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords Abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords Declared England a commonwealth Declared England a commonwealth Cavaliers/Royalists vs. Roundheads Supporters of the King Parliament

21 Execution of Charles I

22 Oliver Oliver Cromwell Cromwell

23 After Cromwell Cromwell dismissed Parliament and set up military dictatorship Cromwell dismissed Parliament and set up military dictatorship After his death, Parliament was restored, as well as, the monarchy After his death, Parliament was restored, as well as, the monarchy Improvement: Parliament has more power than it has ever had before! Improvement: Parliament has more power than it has ever had before! (True representative government) In 1661, Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey, and was subjected to the ritual of a posthumous execution. Symbolically, this took place on 30 January; the same date that Charles I had been executed. His body was hanged in chains. Finally, his disinterred body was thrown into a pit, while his severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Hall until 1685.

24 James II – Catholic James II – Catholic Parliament doesn’t want his son to be next king (Why?) Parliament doesn’t want his son to be next king (Why?) English Noblemen invite William & Mary of Orange (Dutch) to invade England English Noblemen invite William & Mary of Orange (Dutch) to invade England Successful, almost no violence Successful, almost no violence Who would be monarch? Who would be monarch? Glorious Revolution

25 1689: William & Mary accepted throne and a Bill of Rights 1689: William & Mary accepted throne and a Bill of Rights Set forth Parliament’s right to make laws and levy taxes Set forth Parliament’s right to make laws and levy taxes No standing armies w/o Parliament’s consent No standing armies w/o Parliament’s consent Right to bear arms Right to bear arms Right to a jury trial Right to a jury trial What country derived its Bill of Rights from the English?

26 Glorious Revolution Glorious Revolution Major consequence Major consequence By deposing one king and establishing another, Parliament had destroyed the Divine Right theory of kingship By deposing one king and establishing another, Parliament had destroyed the Divine Right theory of kingship English Bill of Rights

27 Chapter 14 Crisis & Absolutism in Europe Section 3: Response to Crisis - Absolutism Section 4: The World of European Culture

28 Louis XIII & Cardinal Richelieu “13” was only a child when he took the throne “13” was only a child when he took the throne Royal minister held power until king reached a certain age Royal minister held power until king reached a certain age Cardinal Richelieu Cardinal Richelieu Took political & military rights from Huguenots Took political & military rights from Huguenots Thwarted plots by nobles through a system of spies, executing the conspirators Thwarted plots by nobles through a system of spies, executing the conspirators King Louis XIII Cardinal Richelieu

29 Louis XIV & Cardinal Mazarin “14” took throne at the age of four and took power at the age of 23 “14” took throne at the age of four and took power at the age of 23 During Mazarin’s rule French nobles tried to rebel against the throne (lost) During Mazarin’s rule French nobles tried to rebel against the throne (lost) IMPORTANT: French people realize that to have stability they needed a monarch IMPORTANT: French people realize that to have stability they needed a monarch

30 France under Louis XIV (14 th ) Response to crisis Response to crisis Seek stability by increasing the monarchy’s power Seek stability by increasing the monarchy’s power Absolutism: a system in which the ruler has total power Absolutism: a system in which the ruler has total power Includes the idea of the Divine Right of Kings Includes the idea of the Divine Right of Kings Louis XIV – true example of an absolute power; Spread power & culture

31 France under Louis XIV The “Sun King” – a source of light for his people The “Sun King” – a source of light for his people Established court at Versailles – held court, social events, and household Established court at Versailles – held court, social events, and household Controlled the central policy- making machinery of government Controlled the central policy- making machinery of government Ruled with absolute authority in foreign policy, the Church and taxes Ruled with absolute authority in foreign policy, the Church and taxes

32 Versailles

33

34 Hall of Mirrors

35 Versailles Versailles

36 Louis XIV

37 Established anti-Huguenot policy Established anti-Huguenot policy Destroyed Huguenot churches & schools Destroyed Huguenot churches & schools Wanted Bourbon dynasty to dominate Europe Wanted Bourbon dynasty to dominate Europe Waged four wars to show power Waged four wars to show power By the end of his reign France was in debt and was surrounded by enemies By the end of his reign France was in debt and was surrounded by enemies On his deathbed, he seemed remorseful for not caring for the people more On his deathbed, he seemed remorseful for not caring for the people more France under Louis XIV

38 Ivan the Terrible (Russia) Ivan the Terrible (Russia) 1 st Russian czar (Russian for Caesar) 1 st Russian czar (Russian for Caesar) Ruthless Ruthless Time of Troubles Time of Troubles Michael Romanov new czar selected by national assembly – ended Time of Troubles Michael Romanov new czar selected by national assembly – ended Time of Troubles Romanov dynasty lasted for over 300 years Romanov dynasty lasted for over 300 years

39 Peter the Great Peter the Great Absolutist – believed in Divine right of Kings Absolutist – believed in Divine right of Kings Made trip to the West – returned wanting to Europeanize Russia Made trip to the West – returned wanting to Europeanize Russia

40 Peter the Great Drafted peasants for 25-year stints of military service Drafted peasants for 25-year stints of military service Established 1 st Russian navy Established 1 st Russian navy Divided Russia into provinces Divided Russia into provinces Introduced Western customs & etiquette Introduced Western customs & etiquette No beards, no veils for women, and shortened coats No beards, no veils for women, and shortened coats Needed to find water port to Europe Needed to find water port to Europe Established new city – St. Petersburg Established new city – St. Petersburg Russian capital until 1918 Russian capital until 1918 St. Petersburg – New Western Capital

41 What were the advantages of moving the capital to St. Petersburg?


Download ppt "Journal: From Wedding Reception to Massacre On August 24, 1572, the feast of St. Bartholomew, thousands of French Calvinists known as Huguenots were in."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google