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Journal: From Wedding Reception to Massacre

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1 Journal: From Wedding Reception to Massacre
On August 24, 1572, the feast of St. Bartholomew, thousands of French Calvinists known as Huguenots were in Paris. They were celebrating the wedding of the Protestant Henry of Navarre to the sister of the king of France. This wedding was to unite the Protestant and Catholic parties in France and end the sectarian warfare that was tearing the country apart. The queen mother, Catherine de Medici, had other ideas. She persuaded the young king to order the elimination of all the Huguenot leaders. Mobs took over in a frenzy of killing. Between 2,000 and 3,000 Huguenots were killed in what has become known as the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. Once more, civil war broke out in France. What finally happened in the French wars of religion to establish peace and tranquility?

2 Journal: The Spanish Armada
As the Great Armada Católica set sail from Spain in the spring of 1588, the commander, Medina Sidonia, was concerned. The water and other supplies stored in the wooden casks on board the ships were spoiling. Many of the casks were defective. The English privateer Sir Francis Drake had raided Spain the year before and had burned many barrels intended for the armada supplies. New casks were built, but the staves were not seasoned wood. This caused leaks and spoilage. The Armada seemed doomed from the beginning. What was the result of the Spanish Armada, both immediately and in the long run?

3 Journal: Glorious Revolution
In 1688, the English chased out King James II and offered the crown to a Dutchman known as William of Orange. King William III ruled jointly with his English wife, Mary – the first time in English history that husband and wife ruled together as equals. This event was known as the Glorious Revolution. Why exactly was it “glorious”?

4 TAKS Practice Question
Test-Taking Tip: Remember the date of the Glorious Revolution to help eliminate answers. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. The controversy that led to the English “Glorious Revolution” was A Tudor-Stuart struggle for the throne. The restoration of a monarch in England. Increased religious freedom for Catholics. A power struggle between Parliament and the king.

5 TAKS Practice Question
Test-Taking Tip: Try to eliminate answers when comparing-contrasting items. Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Which one of the following ideas is common to both the U.S. Bill of Rights and the English Bill of Rights? Restriction on the housing of soldiers in citizens’ homes Protection from involuntary search and seizure Trial by jury for all citizens accused of a crime Limitations of the power of the federal government

6 Journal: Louis XIV Louis XIV rarely talked at meals. He preferred to eat – in huge quantities. A typical supper for Louis was four bowls of soup, an entire chicken, a pheasant, two slices of ham, a salad, some mutton, pastry, fruit, and hard-boiled eggs. Louis’s dinner was often a ritual. It could be eaten “au petit couvert” (with family and friends) or “au grand couvert” (a state banquet with many attendants). Occasionally, Louis would dine “au public.” This meant tourists could go to Versailles to watch the king eat. The public would move in through one door and out another in a line while the king consumed his meal. Louis had many ways to keep the public enthralled with his role as the Sun King. How did the building of his palace at Versailles reinforce the notion that Louis was the center of the French nation?

7 Chapter 14 Crisis & Absolutism in Europe
Section 1 - Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion Section 2 - Social Crises, War & Revolution

8 The French Wars of Religion
Calvinism Catholicism Huguenots (French Protestants) Catholics 7% of total population 50% of nobility House of Bourbon (next in line) Valois Dynasty Civil War

9 French Wars of Religion
1589: Henry IV (Huguenot) is crowned king of France Has no support from Catholics… decides to convert to Catholicism

10 1598: Issued the Edict of Nantes
Recognized Catholicism as France’s official religion, but gave the Huguenots the right to worship Edict of Nantes: First state document to show religious tolerance and the idea of religious freedom.

11 The England of Elizabeth
1558: Elizabeth Tudor ascended to the throne of England Protestant Queen – “the only supreme governor” Tried to keep Spain & France from becoming too powerful

12 Elizabeth I The “Virgin” Queen – never married

13 The England of Elizabeth
Philip II of Spain was married to Mary (“Bloody Mary,” sister to Elizabeth) Philip II desperately wanted to conquer England 1588, Spain sent an armada to invade England Battered by storms in the English Channel and the British fleet

14 Military Tactics 101: Island nations almost always have an excellent navy!

15 Portrait of Elizabeth commemorating the defeat of the Spanish Armada (Symbols?)

16 Revolutions in England
English Revolution Parliament vs. the King Who has the power to govern? James I Divine Right of Kings: that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God Parliament wanted an equal role

17 Church & State Puritans wanted church to be more Protestant (went against the King) Many Puritans served in the House of Commons, which gave them power

18 Charles I vs. Parliament
1628: Parliament passed petition that prohibited passing taxes without Parliament’s consent King agrees to petition and then, later changes his mind Charles imposes Catholic practices on the Church of England Puritans move to America rather than adhere to religious policies

19 Cavaliers/Royalists vs. Roundheads
Civil War Cavaliers/Royalists vs Roundheads Supporters of the King Parliament Parliament won; led by military genius, Oliver Cromwell Got rid of non-supporters and executed Charles I in 1649 Abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords Declared England a commonwealth

20 Execution of Charles I

21 Oliver Cromwell

22 After Cromwell Cromwell dismissed Parliament and set up military dictatorship After his death, Parliament was restored, as well as, the monarchy Improvement: Parliament has more power than it has ever had before! (True representative government) In 1661, Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey, and was subjected to the ritual of a posthumous execution. Symbolically, this took place on 30 January; the same date that Charles I had been executed. His body was hanged in chains. Finally, his disinterred body was thrown into a pit, while his severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Hall until 1685.

23 Glorious Revolution James II – Catholic
Parliament doesn’t want his son to be next king (Why?) English Noblemen invite William & Mary of Orange (Dutch) to invade England Successful, almost no violence Who would be monarch?

24 Glorious Revolution 1689: William & Mary accepted throne and a Bill of Rights Set forth Parliament’s right to make laws and levy taxes No standing armies w/o Parliament’s consent Right to bear arms Right to a jury trial What country derived its Bill of Rights from the English?

25 Glorious Revolution Major consequence
By deposing one king and establishing another, Parliament had destroyed the Divine Right theory of kingship English Bill of Rights

26 Chapter 14 Crisis & Absolutism in Europe
Section 3: Response to Crisis - Absolutism Section 4: The World of European Culture

27 Louis XIII & Cardinal Richelieu
“13” was only a child when he took the throne Royal minister held power until king reached a certain age Cardinal Richelieu Took political & military rights from Huguenots Thwarted plots by nobles through a system of spies, executing the conspirators King Louis XIII Cardinal Richelieu

28 Louis XIV & Cardinal Mazarin
“14” took throne at the age of four and took power at the age of 23 During Mazarin’s rule French nobles tried to rebel against the throne (lost) IMPORTANT: French people realize that to have stability they needed a monarch

29 France under Louis XIV (14th)
Response to crisis Seek stability by increasing the monarchy’s power Absolutism: a system in which the ruler has total power Includes the idea of the Divine Right of Kings Louis XIV – true example of an absolute power; Spread power & culture

30 France under Louis XIV The “Sun King” – a source of light for his people Established court at Versailles – held court, social events, and household Controlled the central policy-making machinery of government Ruled with absolute authority in foreign policy, the Church and taxes

31 Versailles

32 Versailles

33 Hall of Mirrors

34 Versailles

35 Louis XIV

36 France under Louis XIV Established anti-Huguenot policy
Destroyed Huguenot churches & schools Wanted Bourbon dynasty to dominate Europe Waged four wars to show power By the end of his reign France was in debt and was surrounded by enemies On his deathbed, he seemed remorseful for not caring for the people more

37 Ivan the Terrible (Russia)
1st Russian czar (Russian for Caesar) Ruthless Time of Troubles Michael Romanov new czar selected by national assembly – ended Time of Troubles Romanov dynasty lasted for over 300 years

38 Peter the Great Absolutist – believed in Divine right of Kings
Made trip to the West – returned wanting to Europeanize Russia

39 Peter the Great Drafted peasants for 25-year stints of military service Established 1st Russian navy Divided Russia into provinces Introduced Western customs & etiquette No beards, no veils for women, and shortened coats Needed to find water port to Europe Established new city – St. Petersburg Russian capital until 1918 St. Petersburg – New Western Capital

40 What were the advantages of moving the capital to St. Petersburg?

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