Presentation on theme: "Journal: From Wedding Reception to Massacre"— Presentation transcript:
1Journal: From Wedding Reception to Massacre On August 24, 1572, the feast of St. Bartholomew, thousands of French Calvinists known as Huguenots were in Paris. They were celebrating the wedding of the Protestant Henry of Navarre to the sister of the king of France. This wedding was to unite the Protestant and Catholic parties in France and end the sectarian warfare that was tearing the country apart. The queen mother, Catherine de Medici, had other ideas. She persuaded the young king to order the elimination of all the Huguenot leaders. Mobs took over in a frenzy of killing. Between 2,000 and 3,000 Huguenots were killed in what has become known as the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. Once more, civil war broke out in France.What finally happened in the French wars of religion to establish peace and tranquility?
2Journal: The Spanish Armada As the Great Armada Católica set sail from Spain in the spring of 1588, the commander, Medina Sidonia, was concerned. The water and other supplies stored in the wooden casks on board the ships were spoiling. Many of the casks were defective. The English privateer Sir Francis Drake had raided Spain the year before and had burned many barrels intended for the armada supplies. New casks were built, but the staves were not seasoned wood. This caused leaks and spoilage. The Armada seemed doomed from the beginning.What was the result of the Spanish Armada, both immediately and in the long run?
3Journal: Glorious Revolution In 1688, the English chased out King James II and offered the crown to a Dutchman known as William of Orange. King William III ruled jointly with his English wife, Mary – the first time in English history that husband and wife ruled together as equals. This event was known as the Glorious Revolution.Why exactly was it “glorious”?
4TAKS Practice Question Test-Taking Tip: Remember the date of the Glorious Revolution to help eliminate answers.Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question.The controversy that led to the English “Glorious Revolution” wasA Tudor-Stuart struggle for the throne.The restoration of a monarch in England.Increased religious freedom for Catholics.A power struggle between Parliament and the king.
5TAKS Practice Question Test-Taking Tip: Try to eliminate answers when comparing-contrasting items.Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question.Which one of the following ideas is common to both the U.S. Bill of Rights and the English Bill of Rights?Restriction on the housing of soldiers in citizens’ homesProtection from involuntary search and seizureTrial by jury for all citizens accused of a crimeLimitations of the power of the federal government
6Journal: Louis XIVLouis XIV rarely talked at meals. He preferred to eat – in huge quantities. A typical supper for Louis was four bowls of soup, an entire chicken, a pheasant, two slices of ham, a salad, some mutton, pastry, fruit, and hard-boiled eggs. Louis’s dinner was often a ritual. It could be eaten “au petit couvert” (with family and friends) or “au grand couvert” (a state banquet with many attendants). Occasionally, Louis would dine “au public.” This meant tourists could go to Versailles to watch the king eat. The public would move in through one door and out another in a line while the king consumed his meal. Louis had many ways to keep the public enthralled with his role as the Sun King.How did the building of his palace at Versailles reinforce the notion that Louis was the center of the French nation?
7Chapter 14 Crisis & Absolutism in Europe Section 1 - Europe in Crisis: The Wars of ReligionSection 2 - Social Crises, War & Revolution
8The French Wars of Religion CalvinismCatholicismHuguenots(French Protestants)Catholics7% of total population50% of nobilityHouse of Bourbon(next in line)Valois DynastyCivil War
9French Wars of Religion 1589: Henry IV (Huguenot) is crowned king of FranceHas no support from Catholics… decides to convert to Catholicism
101598: Issued the Edict of Nantes Recognized Catholicism as France’s official religion, but gave the Huguenots the right to worshipEdict of Nantes: First state document to show religious tolerance and the idea of religious freedom.
11The England of Elizabeth 1558: Elizabeth Tudor ascended to the throne of EnglandProtestant Queen – “the only supreme governor”Tried to keep Spain & France from becoming too powerful
13The England of Elizabeth Philip II of Spain was married to Mary (“Bloody Mary,” sister to Elizabeth)Philip II desperately wanted to conquer England1588, Spain sent an armada to invade EnglandBattered by storms in the English Channel and the British fleet
14Military Tactics 101: Island nations almost always have an excellent navy!
15Portrait of Elizabeth commemorating the defeat of the Spanish Armada (Symbols?)
16Revolutions in England English RevolutionParliament vs. the KingWho has the power to govern?James IDivine Right of Kings: that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to GodParliament wanted an equal role
17Church & StatePuritans wanted church to be more Protestant (went against the King)Many Puritans served in the House of Commons, which gave them power
18Charles I vs. Parliament 1628: Parliament passed petition that prohibited passing taxes without Parliament’s consentKing agrees to petition and then, later changes his mindCharles imposes Catholic practices on the Church of EnglandPuritans move to America rather than adhere to religious policies
19Cavaliers/Royalists vs. Roundheads Civil WarCavaliers/Royalists vs RoundheadsSupporters of the King ParliamentParliament won; led by military genius, Oliver CromwellGot rid of non-supporters and executed Charles I in 1649Abolished the monarchy and the House of LordsDeclared England a commonwealth
22After CromwellCromwell dismissed Parliament and set up military dictatorshipAfter his death, Parliament was restored, as well as, the monarchyImprovement: Parliament has more power than it has ever had before!(True representative government)In 1661, Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey, and was subjected to the ritual of a posthumous execution. Symbolically, this took place on 30 January; the same date that Charles I had been executed. His body was hanged in chains. Finally, his disinterred body was thrown into a pit, while his severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Hall until 1685.
23Glorious Revolution James II – Catholic Parliament doesn’t want his son to be next king (Why?)English Noblemen invite William & Mary of Orange (Dutch) to invade EnglandSuccessful, almost no violenceWho would be monarch?
24Glorious Revolution1689: William & Mary accepted throne and a Bill of RightsSet forth Parliament’s right to make laws and levy taxesNo standing armies w/o Parliament’s consentRight to bear armsRight to a jury trialWhat country derived itsBill of Rights from the English?
25Glorious Revolution Major consequence By deposing one king and establishing another, Parliament had destroyed the Divine Right theory of kingshipEnglish Bill of Rights
26Chapter 14 Crisis & Absolutism in Europe Section 3: Response to Crisis - AbsolutismSection 4: The World of European Culture
27Louis XIII & Cardinal Richelieu “13” was only a child when he took the throneRoyal minister held power until king reached a certain ageCardinal RichelieuTook political & military rights from HuguenotsThwarted plots by nobles through a system of spies, executing the conspiratorsKing Louis XIIICardinal Richelieu
28Louis XIV & Cardinal Mazarin “14” took throne at the age of four and took power at the age of 23During Mazarin’s rule French nobles tried to rebel against the throne (lost)IMPORTANT: French people realize that to have stability they needed a monarch
29France under Louis XIV (14th) Response to crisisSeek stability by increasing the monarchy’s powerAbsolutism: a system in which the ruler has total powerIncludes the idea of the Divine Right of KingsLouis XIV – true example of an absolute power; Spread power & culture
30France under Louis XIVThe “Sun King” – a source of light for his peopleEstablished court at Versailles – held court, social events, and householdControlled the central policy-making machinery of governmentRuled with absolute authority in foreign policy, the Church and taxes
36France under Louis XIV Established anti-Huguenot policy Destroyed Huguenot churches & schoolsWanted Bourbon dynasty to dominate EuropeWaged four wars to show powerBy the end of his reign France was in debt and was surrounded by enemiesOn his deathbed, he seemed remorseful for not caring for the people more
37Ivan the Terrible (Russia) 1st Russian czar (Russian for Caesar)RuthlessTime of TroublesMichael Romanov new czar selected by national assembly – ended Time of TroublesRomanov dynasty lasted for over 300 years
38Peter the Great Absolutist – believed in Divine right of Kings Made trip to the West – returned wanting to Europeanize Russia
39Peter the GreatDrafted peasants for 25-year stints of military serviceEstablished 1st Russian navyDivided Russia into provincesIntroduced Western customs & etiquetteNo beards, no veils for women, and shortened coatsNeeded to find water port to EuropeEstablished new city – St. PetersburgRussian capital until 1918St. Petersburg – New Western Capital
40What were the advantages of moving the capital to St. Petersburg?