The Big Idea Crisis breeds Revolution and Change Both political and social
French Wars of Religion French Calvinists vs Traditional Catholics Both want new converts Increasingly militant Saint Bartholomew's Day Masscre Religious foundation to the wars but also political and social!
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy in French) in 1572French
French Wars of Religion 1562-1598 Huguenots(French Protestants) = 7% of Population; 50% of Nobility House of Bourbon Valois Monarchy
Henry of Navarre (P) succeeds Henry IV (C) to the thrown. For “The good of France” Henry of Navarre converts to Catholicism Edict of Nantes (1598)
Edict of Nantes 1598 Ends French Wars of Religion Catholicism = national religion Grants Huguenots freedom of religion and right to hold political office.
Religious Wars Continue in Europe Philip II (Spain) “Most Catholic King” Leads Spain to greatness 1556-1598 Saw Spain as Church’s protector
Philip II Defeats Turks @ Battle of Lepanto 1571 Crushes Calvinist rebellions throughout his kingdom Battled the Northern provinces
Elizabeth and England Daughter of Henry VIII Most powerful Protestant leader Act of Supremacy: -Named Elizabeth true and everlasting head of Church in England -Repealed any laws tolerating Catholics - Protestantism is concrete in England.
Stuarts and Divine Right Tudors die with Elizabeth I – Why? James I becomes King (Stuart) Divine right of Kings-
Charles I vs Parliament Puritans vs C of E Charles I (brother of James) Charles I challenges parliament (remember Divine Right of Kings?) Challenges Puritans by forcing Church of England policies and doctrine upon them.
English Civil War 1642 Royalists (Cavaliers) vs. Parliament (Roundheads)
Oliver Cromwell ( Roundhead #1) Victorious He takes over 1.Boots out any royalists- creates “RUMP Parliament” 2.Executes Charles I – shocks Europe 3.Declares England a republic
Then he takes over as dictator! 1648, Cromwell dies and Charles II is restored to the throne (Restoration)
The Restoration and Glorious Revolution Also called musical chairs…
Charles and Brother James were Catholic Big Problem for many English Charles died James II became King 1.Put Catholics in charge 2.Creates religious conflict- people feared a return to Catholicism – why?
The Glorious Revolution Why do you suppose it is called the glorious revolution? English nobles invited William of Orange to “invade” England James II leaves Throne offered to William and Mary (1689)
Jean Baptiste Colbert—finance minister—helps economy grow In 1685, Louis cancels Edict of Nantes; Huguenots flee France
Louis’s Death and Legacy Louis dies leaving mixed legacy Rule makes France a major military and cultural power in Europe His wars and palace leave France with heavy debts
Prussia The Rise of Prussia Rulers of Prussia build Europe’s best army Call themselves kings and become absolute monarchs Nobles resist royal power, but king buys loyalty Frederick the Great Frederick the Great becomes king of Prussia Enforces father’s military policies but softens some of his laws
Ivan the Terrible In 1533, Ivan the Terrible becomes king of Russia Struggles for power with boyars—landowning nobles Seizes power and is crowned czar, meaning “caesar”
Rise of the Romanovs Ivan’s heir is weak, leading to period of turmoil In 1613, Michael Romanov becomes czar
Peter the Great becomes czar Russia Contrasts with Europe Land of boyars and serfs Cut off geographically from Europe Culturally isolated, little contact with western Europe Peter Visits the West -In 1697, Peter visits western Europe to learn European ways
Peter’s Goal Goal of westernization—using western Europe as model for change Brings Orthodox Church under state control Reduces power of great landowners Modernizes army by having European officers train soldiers