Presentation on theme: "Crisis and Absolutism. The Big Idea Crisis breeds Revolution and Change Both political and social."— Presentation transcript:
Crisis and Absolutism
The Big Idea Crisis breeds Revolution and Change Both political and social
French Wars of Religion French Calvinists vs Traditional Catholics Both want new converts Increasingly militant Saint Bartholomew's Day Masscre Religious foundation to the wars but also political and social!
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy in French) in 1572French
French Wars of Religion 1562-1598 Huguenots(French Protestants) = 7% of Population; 50% of Nobility House of Bourbon Valois Monarchy
Henry of Navarre (P) succeeds Henry IV (C) to the thrown. For “The good of France” Henry of Navarre converts to Catholicism Edict of Nantes (1598)
Edict of Nantes 1598 Ends French Wars of Religion Catholicism = national religion Grants Huguenots freedom of religion and right to hold political office.
Religious Wars Continue in Europe Philip II (Spain) “Most Catholic King” Leads Spain to greatness 1556-1598 Saw Spain as Church’s protector
Philip II Defeats Turks @ Battle of Lepanto 1571 Crushes Calvinist rebellions throughout his kingdom Battled the Northern provinces
Elizabeth and England Daughter of Henry VIII Most powerful Protestant leader Act of Supremacy: -Named Elizabeth true and everlasting head of Church in England -Repealed any laws tolerating Catholics - Protestantism is concrete in England.
War w/ Spain 1588 Spanish sent an Armada to attack England War of Religion and for political dominance British fleet(and nature) defeats armada
Economic, Social, and Political Crisis Europe on the brink of change
Economic Inflation Why?
Social Witchcraft Trials Many blamed for witchcraft Knowing what we have already discussed, why do you think people would be blamed for witchcraft? 100,000 accused (75% women)
30 years war Religious disputes after Peace of Augsburg Why? All nations in Europe would be involved (except England) Tore apart and destroyed Germany Ended with Peace of Westphalia 1648
Peace of Westphalia 1648 France emerged as most powerful nation All German states could choose own religion Germany (300 semi-independent states) recognized
Stuarts and Divine Right Tudors die with Elizabeth I – Why? James I becomes King (Stuart) Divine right of Kings-
Charles I vs Parliament Puritans vs C of E Charles I (brother of James) Charles I challenges parliament (remember Divine Right of Kings?) Challenges Puritans by forcing Church of England policies and doctrine upon them.
English Civil War 1642 Royalists (Cavaliers) vs. Parliament (Roundheads)
Oliver Cromwell ( Roundhead #1) Victorious He takes over 1.Boots out any royalists- creates “RUMP Parliament” 2.Executes Charles I – shocks Europe 3.Declares England a republic
Then he takes over as dictator! 1648, Cromwell dies and Charles II is restored to the throne (Restoration)
The Restoration and Glorious Revolution Also called musical chairs…
Charles and Brother James were Catholic Big Problem for many English Charles died James II became King 1.Put Catholics in charge 2.Creates religious conflict- people feared a return to Catholicism – why?
The Glorious Revolution Why do you suppose it is called the glorious revolution? English nobles invited William of Orange to “invade” England James II leaves Throne offered to William and Mary (1689)
Created a constitutional monarchy Bill of Rights Freedom of worship for C of E and Puritans Destroyed Divine Right- or did it? Who has the power in England now?
The Theory of Absolutism Rulers want to be absolute monarchs— rulers with complete power Believe in divine right—idea that monarchs represent God on earth
Crises Lead to Absolutism The 17th century is period of great upheaval Monarchs impose order by increasing their own power
Louis XIV Louis XIV—the most powerful ruler in French history Louis Weakens the Nobles’ Authority Louis takes control in 1661 Appoints intendants—government agents—to collect taxes
Jean Baptiste Colbert—finance minister—helps economy grow In 1685, Louis cancels Edict of Nantes; Huguenots flee France
Louis’s Death and Legacy Louis dies leaving mixed legacy Rule makes France a major military and cultural power in Europe His wars and palace leave France with heavy debts
Prussia The Rise of Prussia Rulers of Prussia build Europe’s best army Call themselves kings and become absolute monarchs Nobles resist royal power, but king buys loyalty Frederick the Great Frederick the Great becomes king of Prussia Enforces father’s military policies but softens some of his laws
Ivan the Terrible In 1533, Ivan the Terrible becomes king of Russia Struggles for power with boyars—landowning nobles Seizes power and is crowned czar, meaning “caesar”
Rise of the Romanovs Ivan’s heir is weak, leading to period of turmoil In 1613, Michael Romanov becomes czar
Peter the Great becomes czar Russia Contrasts with Europe Land of boyars and serfs Cut off geographically from Europe Culturally isolated, little contact with western Europe Peter Visits the West -In 1697, Peter visits western Europe to learn European ways
Peter’s Goal Goal of westernization—using western Europe as model for change Brings Orthodox Church under state control Reduces power of great landowners Modernizes army by having European officers train soldiers
Westernizing Russia Introduces potatoes Starts Russia’s first newspaper Raises women’s status Adopts Western fashion Advances education Builds St. Petersburg (the new Capital) ALL FORCED!