Presentation on theme: "The Age of Absolutism Chapter 14. Absolutism – Chapter 14 The time period in which a ruler held total power was known as the Age of Absolutism. Absolutism."— Presentation transcript:
Absolutism – Chapter 14 The time period in which a ruler held total power was known as the Age of Absolutism. Absolutism was tied to the idea of the Divine Right of Kings where rulers received their power from God and were responsible to no one except for God. Monarchy – ruled by one Anarchy – ruled by none Absolute Monarchy – a ruler maintains absolute authority over foreign policy, taxation, and the lives of their subjects. Constitutional Monarchy – a ruler shares authority with parliament
Absolute Monarchs had the ability to Make laws Levy taxes administer justice control state officials determine foreign policy
Name some Absolute rulers of the Present? 1. 2. 3. 4. 6. 5.
Name some Absolute rulers of the Present? 1.Kim Jong il 2. Mouammar Gaddafi 3. Fidel Castro 4. Hosni Mubarak 5. Saddam Hussein 6. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
What were some reasons why Kings and Queens were needed? Religious wars led to monarchs wanting to increase their power and seek stability
France By 1560 Catholicism and Calvinism were highly combative and their struggle for authority was the cause of many wars during the 16 th century. French wars of religion – French Kings persecuted French protestants known as Huguenots influenced by John Calvin. Religious wars came to an end in France when Henry of Navarre, political leader of the Huguenots, converted to Catholicism and succeeded to the throne in 1594. He issued the Edict of Nantes which recognized Catholicism as the official religion in France but also gave the Huguenots the right to worship and enjoy political privileges.
France Louis XIV became King at age 4 and created an elaborate palace in the city of Versailles with heavy taxes levied upon the poor of his country. He left France in debt in 1715 when he died.
Row game! – France What were French Protestants called? What was the significance of the Edict of Nantes? Who fought who during the French wars of Religion? Where did King Louis XIV build a palace and move his court to?
Spain King Philip II was the most Catholic King and saw Spain as a nation of God that would save Catholicism from the Protestant heretics. He sent the Spanish Armada, a fleet of warships, to invade Protestant England to force it to convert to Catholicism. England would be victorious and remain as a great power in Europe. He left Spain in debt from spending too much on war.
Row Game! - Spain How important was Catholicism to Philip II and the Spanish people? What made Spain such a great Power? Who did Spain attack during the Spanish Armada? Was it a fight by land, sea, or air? Who won the battle and why? What is an “Armada”?
England Elizabeth I was daughter of King Henry VIII and became Queen in 1558. She considered her subjects (Parliament) to be her children. She ruled together with Parliament for 44 years and provided unity and stability making England the most powerful nation in the world. Elizabeth I was considered to be a Constitutional Monarch.
England After Elizabeth’s death, there was a struggle between King and Parliament to determine what role each should play in governing England. James I takes the throne and believes in the Divine Right of Kings.
England Charles I, son of James I, also believed in the Divine Right of Kings. The Puritans, English Protestants, came to odds with Charles I when he imposed taxes without the consent of Parliament and tried to force the Puritans to accept his religious policies. Where did thousands of Puritans decide to go to practice their own religion during this time?
England During the reign of Charles I, civil war broke out between the Cavaliers (supporters of the king) and the Roundheads (extreme parliamentary forces with short haircuts). Oliver Cromwell led the Roundheads to victory due to his military genius. Under his leadership he had Charles I executed, abolished the monarchy, got rid of Parliament, and set up a military dictatorship.
England The Restoration –After Cromwell’s death, parliament restored the monarchy with Charles II, son of Charles I and later James II both made religion once more a cause of conflict between King and Parliament.
England Glorious Revolution –The daughter of James II and her husband, known as William and Mary, both Protestant, raised an army and invaded England in 1688. There was no bloodshed and James II fled to France. –Parliament offered the throne to William and Mary along with the Bill of Rights, which provided the following RIGHTS TO CITIZENS: –Right of Parliament to levy taxes and make laws –Standing armies could not be raised without consent of Parliament –The right of citizens to keep arms and have a jury trial Question: How does this contradict the Divine- right of Kings theory?
Row Game! England What type of monarch was Queen Elizabeth? Absolute or Constitutional? Who was Queen Elizabeth accountable to? (She considered them to be her children) Who were the Puritans and what was their religion? What happened during the Glorious Revolution? Who replaced King James II after the Glorious Revolution? What were the Bill of Rights?
Russia Ivan IV, known as Ivan the Terrible because of his ruthless deeds, was the first ruler to take the title of czar in Russia. He expanded Russian territory and crushed the Russian nobility, known as the boyars.
Russia Peter the Great became czar in 1689 and claimed the divine right to rule and was determined to westernize Russia. –Peter the Great borrowed technology to build a strong modern army making Russia a great power. –He taught Western manners to the Russians by ordering a book of etiquette to be created. –He ordered Russian men to cut their beards and tailor their clothes to resemble the Europeans. –He allowed men and women to mix freely in society and go dancing together. –He opened a Window to the West by fighting Sweden for important land access to Europe at the Baltic Sea and formed St. Petersburg, which is named after him and would be Russia’s capital until 1918.
Row Game! - Russia What was the name of the Russian nobility? What was Peter the Great determined to do? What types of customs, practices, and manners did he bring to Russia? What was significant of St. Petersburg? How did Peter the Great get the lands necessary to construct St. Petersburg?
Miscellaneous Game! What is the difference between an Absolute Monarch and a Constitutional Monarch? Why was there a need for Kings and Queens? What was the Divine Right of Kings? Who were most likely accused of being a witch? Pg 435 What was the peace of Westphalia? Pg 436 How many years did the Thirty Years War last? What is Absolutism? How did John Locke’s idea about human nature differ from Thomas Hobbes? What type of government would John Locke want compared to Thomas Hobbes? What are natural rights? What reasons did John Locke and Thomas Hobbes give for why humans developed governments? What two important US documents can Locke’s ideas be found?
Matching Key Figures to their respective country Phillip II____a. Spain Queen Elizabeth ____b. England William and Mary____c. France Ivan the Terrible____d. Russia Louis XIV ____ Peter the Great ____ Oliver Cromwell ____ James II ____ Charles V ____