Presentation on theme: "What happened in England?"— Presentation transcript:
1What happened in England? The development of limited monarchy(Constitutional Monarchy)
2Constitutional Monarchy A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an hereditary or elected monarch as head of state.Though the king or queen may be regarded as the government's symbolic head, it is the Prime Minister who actually governs the country. For example: Queen Elizabeth II of England.Constitutional Monarchy
3The Monarch and Parliament What was Parliament?The representatives of the people.Why did England have a Parliament?Magna Carta in 1215.
4Magna Carta 1215 barons had enough & listed their grievances List became known as Magna Carta (Great Charter)John met barons at RunnymedeIt introduced the idea that even the king must obey some laws!
5Magna Carta The king must not interfere with the Church When a baron inherits land he should pay the king no more than £100The king cannot collect new taxes unless the barons and bishops agreeNo freeman can be put in prison without trial by a juryJustice will be without delays or bribesTraders must be able to travel freely without having to pay tollsThe King’s men must not take anyone’s goods without paying for them.As soon as peace is restored, all foreign merchants should leave the country.
6The Tudors and Parliament Henry VIII created Protestant Church in England to divorce first wifeHad Parliament pass laws ending power of pope in EnglandIn 1534 Act of Supremacy named king as head of Church of EnglandHenry and ParliamentTwo prominent members of Tudor dynasty, Henry VIII and daughter Elizabeth I, ruled when absolutism common on European continentIn England, Parliament placed curbs on absolute monarchyBoth father, daughter had to learn to work with Parliament to fulfill goalsHenry and Elizabeth
7Edward, Mary, ElizabethAfter Henry’s death and short reign of son Edward, Mary I became queenOften called Bloody Mary, briefly made England Catholic again1558, Mary died; Elizabeth crowned queenReturned England to Anglican Church with Parliament’s helpTensionTension developed between Parliament, queenParliament pressured her to marry so she would have heir to throneElizabeth refused, knowing marriage would limit her freedomStill managed to talk Parliament into approving funds she needed
8Elizabeth in ChargeMajor reason for Elizabeth’s good relationship with Parliament, her willingness to let members speak minds without fear of punishmentClose ties shown in fact that she called Parliament into session 10 times in 45-year reignElizabeth clearly in charge, but had difficulty keeping subjects from questioning her actionsEarl of Essex rebelled against authorityAsked publicly, “Cannot princes err? Cannot subjects receive wrong? Is an earthly power or authority infinite?”Essex tried, executed as a traitorNot the last to question Elizabeth’s authority
9How did Parliament interfere with absolute monarchy? Parliament wanted to share power with the Monarch.James expected to be an absolute monarch and was challenged by Parliament.
10The Stuarts and Parliament The Tudors’ success with Parliament not repeatedRelative of the Scotland Tudors succeeded ElizabethJames I, first of Stuart dynasty to rule in EnglandView of absolute monarchy caused conflict with ParliamentPrevious wars, own spending left him low on fundsJames IFrom Scotland, considered outsiderJames rarely got all money he wanted from ParliamentPuritans wanted reform of Church of EnglandClashes with ParliamentSeen as threat to James’s power; church leadership supported himRefused to pass Puritans’ requests for reformDid agree to publication of King James BiblePuritan Reform
11England James I Son of Mary Queen of Scots Raised by Scottish leaders “Divine right of kings”Royal monopoliesDissolved ParliamentLost favor of the peoplePuritans' opposition
12English monarchs attempted to establish absolute system James I ( ) fought with Parliament over his authority.Puritans wanted Anglican Church to reflect a Calvinist view.James refused to cooperate, except for a new Bible translation.
13James I and the clash with Parliament James I wanted absolute power when he inherited the throne from Queen ElizabethElizabeth wanted absolute power too, but was better at flattering parliament to get her wayAlways conflict between the royalty and parliament over $ - royalty wants $ for royal court and foreign wars
14James I continuedAlso annoyed people b/c he refused to make Puritan reforms (get rid of Catholic practices).Hated when anyone told him what to do (sound familiar?)Known for the King James Bible – the Puritan translation of the old Bible
15James I Reigned 1603-25 The people disliked him Jamestown & Plymouth, Massachusetts foundedEngland went into debt; James demanded high taxesArgued with Parliament; wanted absolute monarchy as in Henry VIII’s day
17Charles I Defies Parliament When James I died in 1625, his younger son was crowned king as Charles I.Popular at first, but married Catholic princessInvolved England in military adventures overseas1628, summoned Parliament to request moneyParliament refused until Charles signed Petition of RightPetition of Right a direct challenge to absolute monarchyIssues of MoneyPlaced limits on king’s powerCould not levy taxes without Parliamentary approvalParliament later refused to give Charles money againHe taxed English people on own, forced bankers to lend him moneyParliament was furiousCharles dismissed Parliament1629, decided to rule without consulting Parliament againPetition of Right
18England Charles I Son of James I Revolt in Scotland War with France Scottish people did not feel fairly treatedImposition of bishops versus presbytersWar with FranceUnable to raise taxes without ParliamentLong ParliamentCivil WarDeath of the kingRoundheads vs Cavaliers
19Charles I 1625, James I dies and his son, Charles I, gets the throne Always needed $ for warWhen parliament denied $ requests, he dissolved parliament1628, parliament gets back together and asks Charles to sign the Petition of Right
20What was the Petition of Right? An agreement between Parliament and the King that said the king must:Get Parliament’s consent to raise taxes.Not imprison subjects without due cause.Not have martial law or house soldiers in time of peace.
21Petition of Right No imprisonment without due cause No taxation without parliament’s consentNo putting soldiers in private homesNo martial law during peacetimeCharles I signed the petition and then ignored it – even dissolved parliament again and levied mad taxes on the people
22How did the Petition of Right limit the monarchy in England? The king had to follow rules.Especially important the king had to ask Parliament’s permission to raise taxes
23More of Charles IThe people hated the taxes (obviously)
24What did Charles do to limit Parliament’s Power? He did not allow them to meet for over ten years.When they did meet he tried to arrest Parliament’s leadersThis started the English Civil War.
25Charles loses his head in an argument Charles I ( ) pursued an aggressive foreign policy with Spain.Continually sought new funds from Parliament, members checked his power by forcing him to sign the Petition of Right, 1628.When Charles dissolved Parliament and tried to raise money, civil war resulted.: 01glance/images/charles1.jpg
26Parliamentary Parties Tories: for a strong king, tended to be Anglicans & landless nobles (who got their titles from the king)Whigs: for a strong Parliament, tended to be Anglicans who supported religious freedom, as well as merchants and lawyers; also included Puritans
27Parliament Reconvened The English Civil WarConflict ContinuedConflict continued between king who believed in absolute monarchy, Parliament that saw itself independentConflict led to war, king’s deathParliament Reconvened1640, Charles I finally reconvened Parliament to ask for more money“Long Parliament” did not disband for several yearsLimited King’s PowersHaving been ignored 11 years, Parliament took opportunity to further limit king’s powersDemanded Parliament be called at least every three yearsGrudging AcceptanceParliament also ruled king could no longer dismiss ParliamentCharles accepted new rules; but awaited right time to overturn
281642 Civil WarErupted because Charles I refused to let Parliament meet from When they finally did meet, refused to give him money unless he agreed to limit his own powers.Tories willing to fight nicknamed “Cavaliers” (Fr. Chevalier=knight)Puritans flocked to the banner of General Oliver Cromwell; known as “Roundheads” for their closely cropped, plain hair, in contrast with the fashionably long haired CavaliersPuritanism swept the lend; arts and sciences that flourished since Elizabeth went underground
29War with Parliament Strategy Charles Tries Power Grab Civil War Begins Charles’ moment came when radical Puritan group in Parliament moved to abolish appointment of bishops in Anglican ChurchKing, whose power connected to power of church, was outragedCharles Tries Power GrabCharles decided to arrest Puritan leaders for treasonLed troops into House of Commons, but men had already escapedCharles had tipped hand on intentions to take back powerCivil War BeginsSome members of Parliament decided to rise up against kingCharles I called for support of English people1642, English Civil War began
30English Civil WarSince Charles I ruled over Scotland AND England, there were several religionsCharles I wanted ONE religion – ended up in Civil War when the Scots rebelledWar cost $, so Charles needed Parliament. Parliament hated him and wanted to limit his powerSupporters of Charles I = RoyalistsThe opposition supports Parliament = Roundheads
31Royalists and Roundheads Without Parliament’s funding, king relied on contributions to pay armyWealthy nobles called Royalists for allegiance to CharlesParliament could back its army by voting for fundingSupporters of Parliament called Roundheads for short, bowl-shaped haircutsRoundheads included Puritans, merchants, some from upper classesParliament member Oliver Cromwell led Roundhead forcesRose to leadership as army general1644, led victory in which 4,000 of king’s soldiers diedCromwell soon became commander of Parliament’s armyRoundhead ForcesRoyalist army outmatched by Cromwell’s troops1646, king surrenderedCromwell dismissed members of Parliament who disagreed with himThose left made up what was called the Rump ParliamentKing Surrenders
32More Civil WarUnder leadership of Oliver Cromwell, the puritan roundheads finally won (1646)Took Charles I hostage, tried him in front of the public and executed himThe decapitation -
33Eventually Rump Parliament charged king with treason, put him on trial Trial and ExecutionEventually Rump Parliament charged king with treason, put him on trialDuring trial, Charles defended self with great eloquence, refused to even recognize Parliament’s authority to try himIn the end, Charles sentenced to death for treasonJanuary 30, 1649, publicly beheaded in front of own palaceTo some he was martyr; to others tyrant who got what he deserved
34Results of the English Civil War Charles I lost and was tried and executed (Beheaded).England was ruled by a military dictatorship for 9 years.The Restoration lasted for 28 years.Glorious Revolution changed kings without violence.
35Oliver Cromwell defeats king’s forces and became Lord Protector Charles executed for treason.On paper, England was a republic but in practice a dictatorship.Cromwell suppressed revolt in Ireland.Imposed Puritan ideals on English.
36Oliver Cromwell1649 he got rid of the monarchy and established a republican form of governmentSent most of the Parliamentary members home and eventually established a military dictatorship (he tore up the first constitution that his associate produced)Since Ireland was under English rule, the Irish revolted against Cromwell and failed – 616,000 Irish were killed by war, plague and famine
37England under Cromwell CommonwealthEngland’s government changed completely for the next 11 yearsHouse of Commons abolished House of Lords, outlawed monarchyBecame commonwealth, government based on common good of all peopleLord Protector1653, Cromwell given title Lord Protector of England, Scotland, IrelandSkilled leader, but demanded complete obedienceClamped down on social life, closed theaters, limited other entertainmentForeign IssuesCromwell also had to deal with foreign issuesLed military expeditions to Scotland, IrelandEconomic policies led to war with Dutch over trade; also warred on Spain
38Puritan MoralityCromwell and the Puritans wanted to improve England’s moralityAbolished all “sinful” things – like theaterCromwell was tolerant of other religions despite his deep Puritan beliefs (EXCEPT CATHOLICS)
39A Defender of Absolutism Cromwell, the king’s death, war troubled many English peopleOne was Thomas Hobbes, Royalist who fled to France during Cromwell’s ruleHobbes wrote classic work of political science, LeviathanQuestions of RuleIn Leviathan, Hobbes described humans as being naturally selfish, fearfulHobbes argued that people needed all-powerful monarch to tell them how to liveViews sparked controversy when England trying to find balance in governmentLeviathan
40Interregnum Latin for “between kings,” 1649-60 England became a “Protectorate” instead of a commonwealth with Cromwell as “Lord Protector”Scotland & Ireland conquered (hence Ireland’s anti-Protestant attitudeOliver dies in 1658, his son Richard now Lord ProtectorRichard proves to be inept, so people overthrow him in 1660, ask for monarchy
41The Monarchy Returns The Restoration The New King Hobbes’s ideas reflected the fact that many people were unhappy under Cromwell, especially when he dismissed Parliament to rule alone—like a king. Attitudes were changing so much that a return to monarchy became possible.1658, Cromwell died; son took place; Richard Cromwell lacked father’s leadership abilitiesHis government collapsedEventually Parliament reconvened, voted to bring back monarchy—event known as the RestorationThe RestorationSpring 1660, Parliament invited son of Charles I to be new kingParliament laid out certain conditions which Charles acceptedWas crowned as Charles IIPeople shouted their good wishesThe New KingPepys: “Great joy all yesterday at London, and at night more bonfires that ever, and ringing of bells…every body seems to be very joyfull in the business…”
42Great Chain of Being May explain why English wanted a monarch again. A way of looking at the universe and how it worksAll beings and objects arranged in a hierarchy with God at the top and mere dust at the bottomBy killing the king, the chain is disrupted and chaos ensues
43Monarchy Restored When Cromwell died, so did his government. English invitedCharles II ( ) to restore monarchy.Reign was a period of calm marked by court decadence.
44Restoration and Revolution English get sick of military rule and after Cromwell dies, they ask the older son of Charles I (Charles II) to rule EnglandRestoration of monarch = restorationAllowed the return of theater and sportsPassed important guarantee of freedom: Habeas Corpus“to have the body”People need to know why they’re arrestedCould not be held indefinitely without trial
45The Reign of Charles IICharles had to address many issues—conflict with Dutch continued; religious tensions remained; role of Parliament still being developedCharles supported religious toleration for Catholics, but Parliament insisted on laws to strengthen the Church of EnglandRestoration years, mixture of positive, negative eventsPositive and NegativeCharles reopened theaters, flowering of English drama resultedHabeas Corpus Act passed, guaranteeing someone accused of a crime had right to appear in court to determine if should be held, released1665, bubonic plague returned; following year Great Fire of LondonAfter fire, Charles supported public construction projects
46Monarchy In Crisis On Charles’ death, brother became king. James II ( ) was pro-Catholic, which angered many.When his young wife produced an heir, Parliament feared a renewed period of turmoil and removed king from power.images/james_2_full.jpg
47James IILater in Charles’s reign the question of who would succeed him remained. His brother James was next in line, but he was a Catholic.1688, group of nobles invited James’s daughter Mary, husband William to become king, queenWilliam and Mary both Protestants, lived in NetherlandsJames fled to FranceParliament gave throne to William III, Mary II as joint rulers; transfer became known as the Glorious RevolutionGlorious RevolutionJames married to Catholic princess, whose Catholic son would outrank James’s Protestant daughters from first marriage1685, Charles died, James crowned kingMany wondered if another destructive war would followJames not popular; believed in right to rule as absolute monarchEnglish did not tolerate that beliefNot Popular
48James II and the Glorious Revolution James II got the throne after Charles II diedEveryone hated James b/c he was flamboyantly Catholic and gave his Catholic friends good jobsJames was eventually peacefully overthrown by his own daughter and her husband (protestants)William and Mary then ruled England
49The Glorious Revolution William and Mary Restore English Monarchy Parliament invited Mary, daughter of Charles I, and a Protestant, to jointly rule with her husband, William of Orange. ( )Both agreed to follow Parliamentary laws and accepted English Bill of Rights.England became the only limited monarchy in Europe. Parliament in control.rulers/images/willmary.gif
50What were the results of the Glorious Revolution? William and Mary ruled with Parliament = Constitutional Monarchy.They agreed to a Bill of Rights that limited government’s (monarch’s) powerCabinet system developed with the Prime Minister as leader.
51Constitutional Monarchy Changes in GovernmentWith Glorious Revolution, Parliament had essentially crowned new king, queenMore important, a document William and Mary had to sign before taking throne—the English Bill of RightsDocument prevented monarch from levying taxes without consent of Parliament, among other provisionsU.S. Bill of Rights based on this documentBill of RightsBill of Rights central to England’s growth as Constitutional Monarchy, term for monarchy limited by lawDocument’s approval came after decades of dramatic changes in English governmentEngland had rejected concept of absolute monarch who ruled by divine right, for monarchy ruled by lawConstitutional Monarchy
52Political ChangesFirst Constitutional Monarchy where laws limited the ruler’s powerBill of Rights:No suspension of Parliament’s lawsNo taxes w/o Parliament’s consentFreedom of speech in ParliamentNo penalty for complaining about the King
53Political Changes Continued Established a CabinetCabinet was a link b/w the majority party in Parliament and the KingBecame center of power and policymakingStill exists todayLeader of Cabinet = Prime Minister
541707 Act of Union Unifies Scotland & England Ireland is a subject nationNation known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland