Presentation on theme: "What happened in England? The development of limited monarchy (Constitutional Monarchy)"— Presentation transcript:
What happened in England? The development of limited monarchy (Constitutional Monarchy)
A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. Though the king or queen may be regarded as the government's symbolic head, it is the Prime Minister who actually governs the country. For example: Queen Elizabeth II of England. Constitutional Monarchy
The Monarch and Parliament What was Parliament? The representatives of the people. Why did England have a Parliament? Magna Carta in 1215.
Magna Carta 1215 barons had enough & listed their grievances List became known as Magna Carta (Great Charter) John met barons at Runnymede It introduced the idea that even the king must obey some laws!
Magna Carta The king must not interfere with the Church When a baron inherits land he should pay the king no more than £100 The king cannot collect new taxes unless the barons and bishops agree No freeman can be put in prison without trial by a jury Justice will be without delays or bribes Traders must be able to travel freely without having to pay tolls The King’s men must not take anyone’s goods without paying for them. As soon as peace is restored, all foreign merchants should leave the country.
Henry VIII created Protestant Church in England to divorce first wife Had Parliament pass laws ending power of pope in England In 1534 Act of Supremacy named king as head of Church of England Henry and Parliament Two prominent members of Tudor dynasty, Henry VIII and daughter Elizabeth I, ruled when absolutism common on European continent In England, Parliament placed curbs on absolute monarchy Both father, daughter had to learn to work with Parliament to fulfill goals Henry and Elizabeth The Tudors and Parliament
Tension Tension developed between Parliament, queen Parliament pressured her to marry so she would have heir to throne Elizabeth refused, knowing marriage would limit her freedom Still managed to talk Parliament into approving funds she needed Edward, Mary, Elizabeth After Henry’s death and short reign of son Edward, Mary I became queen Often called Bloody Mary, briefly made England Catholic again 1558, Mary died; Elizabeth crowned queen Returned England to Anglican Church with Parliament’s help
Elizabeth in Charge Major reason for Elizabeth’s good relationship with Parliament, her willingness to let members speak minds without fear of punishment Close ties shown in fact that she called Parliament into session 10 times in 45-year reign Elizabeth clearly in charge, but had difficulty keeping subjects from questioning her actions Earl of Essex rebelled against authority Asked publicly, “Cannot princes err? Cannot subjects receive wrong? Is an earthly power or authority infinite?” Essex tried, executed as a traitor Not the last to question Elizabeth’s authority
How did Parliament interfere with absolute monarchy? Parliament wanted to share power with the Monarch. James expected to be an absolute monarch and was challenged by Parliament.
The Tudors’ success with Parliament not repeated Relative of the Scotland Tudors succeeded Elizabeth James I, first of Stuart dynasty to rule in England View of absolute monarchy caused conflict with Parliament Previous wars, own spending left him low on funds James I From Scotland, considered outsider James rarely got all money he wanted from Parliament Puritans wanted reform of Church of England Clashes with Parliament Seen as threat to James’s power; church leadership supported him Refused to pass Puritans’ requests for reform Did agree to publication of King James Bible Puritan Reform The Stuarts and Parliament
England James I Son of Mary Queen of Scots Raised by Scottish leaders “Divine right of kings” Royal monopolies Dissolved Parliament Lost favor of the people Puritans' opposition
English monarchs attempted to establish absolute system James I (1603-1625) fought with Parliament over his authority. Puritans wanted Anglican Church to reflect a Calvinist view. James refused to cooperate, except for a new Bible translation. www.bbc.co.uk/history
James I and the clash with Parliament James I wanted absolute power when he inherited the throne from Queen Elizabeth Elizabeth wanted absolute power too, but was better at flattering parliament to get her way Always conflict between the royalty and parliament over $ - royalty wants $ for royal court and foreign wars
James I continued Also annoyed people b/c he refused to make Puritan reforms (get rid of Catholic practices). Hated when anyone told him what to do (sound familiar?) Known for the King James Bible – the Puritan translation of the old Bible
James I Reigned 1603-25 The people disliked him Jamestown & Plymouth, Massachusetts founded England went into debt; James demanded high taxes Argued with Parliament; wanted absolute monarchy as in Henry VIII’s day
King James I
When James I died in 1625, his younger son was crowned king as Charles I. Popular at first, but married Catholic princess Involved England in military adventures overseas 1628, summoned Parliament to request money Parliament refused until Charles signed Petition of Right Petition of Right a direct challenge to absolute monarchy Issues of Money Placed limits on king’s power Could not levy taxes without Parliamentary approval Parliament later refused to give Charles money again He taxed English people on own, forced bankers to lend him money Parliament was furious Charles dismissed Parliament 1629, decided to rule without consulting Parliament again Petition of Right Charles I Defies Parliament
England Charles I Son of James I Revolt in Scotland Scottish people did not feel fairly treated Imposition of bishops versus presbyters War with France Unable to raise taxes without Parliament Long Parliament Civil War Death of the king Roundheads vs Cavaliers
Charles I 1625, James I dies and his son, Charles I, gets the throne Always needed $ for war When parliament denied $ requests, he dissolved parliament 1628, parliament gets back together and asks Charles to sign the Petition of Right
What was the Petition of Right? An agreement between Parliament and the King that said the king must: Get Parliament’s consent to raise taxes. Not imprison subjects without due cause. Not have martial law or house soldiers in time of peace.
Petition of Right No imprisonment without due cause No taxation without parliament’s consent No putting soldiers in private homes No martial law during peacetime Charles I signed the petition and then ignored it – even dissolved parliament again and levied mad taxes on the people
How did the Petition of Right limit the monarchy in England? The king had to follow rules. Especially important the king had to ask Parliament’s permission to raise taxes
More of Charles I The people hated the taxes (obviously)
What did Charles do to limit Parliament’s Power? He did not allow them to meet for over ten years. When they did meet he tried to arrest Parliament’s leaders This started the English Civil War.
Charles loses his head in an argument Charles I (1625-1649) pursued an aggressive foreign policy with Spain. Continually sought new funds from Parliament, members checked his power by forcing him to sign the Petition of Right, 1628. When Charles dissolved Parliament and tried to raise money, civil war resulted. : www.mdarchives.state.md.us/.../ 01glance/images/charles1.jpg
Parliamentary Parties Tories: for a strong king, tended to be Anglicans & landless nobles (who got their titles from the king) Whigs: for a strong Parliament, tended to be Anglicans who supported religious freedom, as well as merchants and lawyers; also included Puritans
Conflict Continued Conflict continued between king who believed in absolute monarchy, Parliament that saw itself independent Conflict led to war, king’s death Limited King’s Powers Having been ignored 11 years, Parliament took opportunity to further limit king’s powers Demanded Parliament be called at least every three years Parliament Reconvened 1640, Charles I finally reconvened Parliament to ask for more money “Long Parliament” did not disband for several years Grudging Acceptance Parliament also ruled king could no longer dismiss Parliament Charles accepted new rules; but awaited right time to overturn The English Civil War
1642 Civil War Erupted because Charles I refused to let Parliament meet from 1629-40. When they finally did meet, refused to give him money unless he agreed to limit his own powers. Tories willing to fight nicknamed “Cavaliers” (Fr. Chevalier=knight) Puritans flocked to the banner of General Oliver Cromwell; known as “Roundheads” for their closely cropped, plain hair, in contrast with the fashionably long haired Cavaliers Puritanism swept the lend; arts and sciences that flourished since Elizabeth went underground
Strategy Charles’ moment came when radical Puritan group in Parliament moved to abolish appointment of bishops in Anglican Church King, whose power connected to power of church, was outraged Civil War Begins Some members of Parliament decided to rise up against king Charles I called for support of English people 1642, English Civil War began Charles Tries Power Grab Charles decided to arrest Puritan leaders for treason Led troops into House of Commons, but men had already escaped Charles had tipped hand on intentions to take back power War with Parliament
English Civil War Since Charles I ruled over Scotland AND England, there were several religions Charles I wanted ONE religion – ended up in Civil War when the Scots rebelled War cost $, so Charles needed Parliament. Parliament hated him and wanted to limit his power Supporters of Charles I = Royalists The opposition supports Parliament = Roundheads
Without Parliament’s funding, king relied on contributions to pay army Wealthy nobles called Royalists for allegiance to Charles Parliament could back its army by voting for funding Supporters of Parliament called Roundheads for short, bowl-shaped haircuts Roundheads included Puritans, merchants, some from upper classes Parliament member Oliver Cromwell led Roundhead forces Rose to leadership as army general 1644, led victory in which 4,000 of king’s soldiers died Cromwell soon became commander of Parliament’s army Roundhead Forces Royalist army outmatched by Cromwell’s troops 1646, king surrendered Cromwell dismissed members of Parliament who disagreed with him Those left made up what was called the Rump Parliament King Surrenders Royalists and Roundheads
More Civil War Under leadership of Oliver Cromwell, the puritan roundheads finally won (1646) Took Charles I hostage, tried him in front of the public and executed him The decapitation -
Trial and Execution Eventually Rump Parliament charged king with treason, put him on trial During trial, Charles defended self with great eloquence, refused to even recognize Parliament’s authority to try him In the end, Charles sentenced to death for treason January 30, 1649, publicly beheaded in front of own palace To some he was martyr; to others tyrant who got what he deserved
Results of the English Civil War Charles I lost and was tried and executed (Beheaded). England was ruled by a military dictatorship for 9 years. The Restoration lasted for 28 years. Glorious Revolution changed kings without violence.
Oliver Cromwell defeats king’s forces and became Lord Protector Charles executed for treason. On paper, England was a republic but in practice a dictatorship. Cromwell suppressed revolt in Ireland. Imposed Puritan ideals on English. http://www.graham.day.dsl.pipex.com/civilwar-cromwell.gif
Oliver Cromwell 1649 he got rid of the monarchy and established a republican form of government Sent most of the Parliamentary members home and eventually established a military dictatorship (he tore up the first constitution that his associate produced) Since Ireland was under English rule, the Irish revolted against Cromwell and failed – 616,000 Irish were killed by war, plague and famine
Commonwealth England’s government changed completely for the next 11 years House of Commons abolished House of Lords, outlawed monarchy Became commonwealth, government based on common good of all people Foreign Issues Cromwell also had to deal with foreign issues Led military expeditions to Scotland, Ireland Economic policies led to war with Dutch over trade; also warred on Spain Lord Protector 1653, Cromwell given title Lord Protector of England, Scotland, Ireland Skilled leader, but demanded complete obedience Clamped down on social life, closed theaters, limited other entertainment England under Cromwell
Puritan Morality Cromwell and the Puritans wanted to improve England’s morality Abolished all “sinful” things – like theater Cromwell was tolerant of other religions despite his deep Puritan beliefs (EXCEPT CATHOLICS)
In Leviathan, Hobbes described humans as being naturally selfish, fearful Hobbes argued that people needed all-powerful monarch to tell them how to live Views sparked controversy when England trying to find balance in government Leviathan Cromwell, the king’s death, war troubled many English people One was Thomas Hobbes, Royalist who fled to France during Cromwell’s rule Hobbes wrote classic work of political science, Leviathan Questions of Rule A Defender of Absolutism
Interregnum Latin for “between kings,” 1649-60 England became a “Protectorate” instead of a commonwealth with Cromwell as “Lord Protector” Scotland & Ireland conquered (hence Ireland’s anti-Protestant attitude Oliver dies in 1658, his son Richard now Lord Protector Richard proves to be inept, so people overthrow him in 1660, ask for monarchy
Pepys: “Great joy all yesterday at London, and at night more bonfires that ever, and ringing of bells…every body seems to be very joyfull in the business…” Hobbes’s ideas reflected the fact that many people were unhappy under Cromwell, especially when he dismissed Parliament to rule alone—like a king. Attitudes were changing so much that a return to monarchy became possible. 1658, Cromwell died; son took place; Richard Cromwell lacked father’s leadership abilities His government collapsed Eventually Parliament reconvened, voted to bring back monarchy—event known as the Restoration The Restoration The Monarchy Returns Spring 1660, Parliament invited son of Charles I to be new king Parliament laid out certain conditions which Charles accepted Was crowned as Charles II People shouted their good wishes The New King
Great Chain of Being May explain why English wanted a monarch again. A way of looking at the universe and how it works All beings and objects arranged in a hierarchy with God at the top and mere dust at the bottom By killing the king, the chain is disrupted and chaos ensues
Monarchy Restored When Cromwell died, so did his government. English invited Charles II (1660- 1685) to restore monarchy. Reign was a period of calm marked by court decadence.
Restoration and Revolution English get sick of military rule and after Cromwell dies, they ask the older son of Charles I (Charles II) to rule England Restoration of monarch = restoration Allowed the return of theater and sports Passed important guarantee of freedom: Habeas Corpus “to have the body” People need to know why they’re arrested Could not be held indefinitely without trial
Positive and Negative Charles reopened theaters, flowering of English drama resulted Habeas Corpus Act passed, guaranteeing someone accused of a crime had right to appear in court to determine if should be held, released 1665, bubonic plague returned; following year Great Fire of London After fire, Charles supported public construction projects The Reign of Charles II Charles had to address many issues—conflict with Dutch continued; religious tensions remained; role of Parliament still being developed Charles supported religious toleration for Catholics, but Parliament insisted on laws to strengthen the Church of England Restoration years, mixture of positive, negative events
Monarchy In Crisis On Charles’ death, brother became king. James II (1685-1688) was pro-Catholic, which angered many. When his young wife produced an heir, Parliament feared a renewed period of turmoil and removed king from power. www.bbc.co.uk/.../monarchs_leaders/ images/james_2_full.jpg
Later in Charles’s reign the question of who would succeed him remained. His brother James was next in line, but he was a Catholic. James married to Catholic princess, whose Catholic son would outrank James’s Protestant daughters from first marriage 1685, Charles died, James crowned king Many wondered if another destructive war would follow James not popular; believed in right to rule as absolute monarch English did not tolerate that belief Not Popular 1688, group of nobles invited James’s daughter Mary, husband William to become king, queen William and Mary both Protestants, lived in Netherlands James fled to France Parliament gave throne to William III, Mary II as joint rulers; transfer became known as the Glorious Revolution Glorious Revolution James II
James II and the Glorious Revolution James II got the throne after Charles II died Everyone hated James b/c he was flamboyantly Catholic and gave his Catholic friends good jobs James was eventually peacefully overthrown by his own daughter and her husband (protestants) William and Mary then ruled England
The Glorious Revolution William and Mary Restore English Monarchy Parliament invited Mary, daughter of Charles I, and a Protestant, to jointly rule with her husband, William of Orange. (1689-1702) Both agreed to follow Parliamentary laws and accepted English Bill of Rights. England became the only limited monarchy in Europe. Parliament in control. www.camelotintl.com/heritage/ rulers/images/willmary.gif
What were the results of the Glorious Revolution? William and Mary ruled with Parliament = Constitutional Monarchy. They agreed to a Bill of Rights that limited government’s (monarch’s) power Cabinet system developed with the Prime Minister as leader.
Bill of Rights central to England’s growth as Constitutional Monarchy, term for monarchy limited by law Document’s approval came after decades of dramatic changes in English government England had rejected concept of absolute monarch who ruled by divine right, for monarchy ruled by law Constitutional Monarchy With Glorious Revolution, Parliament had essentially crowned new king, queen More important, a document William and Mary had to sign before taking throne—the English Bill of Rights Document prevented monarch from levying taxes without consent of Parliament, among other provisions U.S. Bill of Rights based on this document Bill of Rights Changes in Government
Political Changes First Constitutional Monarchy where laws limited the ruler’s power Bill of Rights: No suspension of Parliament’s laws No taxes w/o Parliament’s consent Freedom of speech in Parliament No penalty for complaining about the King
Political Changes Continued Established a Cabinet Cabinet was a link b/w the majority party in Parliament and the King Became center of power and policymaking Still exists today Leader of Cabinet = Prime Minister
1707 Act of Union Unifies Scotland & England Ireland is a subject nation Nation known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland