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The Development of Democracy In England

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1 The Development of Democracy In England

2 King Henry II King of England (r. 1154-1189)
Gifted king, considered one of the great statesmen of the 12th century

3 Jury Trial One of King Henry II’s (1154-1189) greatest achievements
A judge would seek the counsel of 12 male citizens of the area before deciding guilt or innocence

4 Common Law Over time England developed “Common Law” legal system: it was common to all of England, not just particular areas These were established laws, procedures, and legal codes that came to be universally accepted (not just up to a king or lord to decide rules and laws)

5 Magna Carta (1215)

6 Magna Carta 1215 (Con’t) King John I fought costly unsuccessful wars with France These wars led to raised taxes in England Angry English nobles rebelled and forced John to recognize their political and civil rights

7 Magna Carta 1215 (Con’t) They wrote these demands down and called it the Magna Carta (“Great Charter” in Latin)

8 Magna Carta 1215 (Con’t) Guaranteed that English monarchs could not rule any way they wanted (follow Common Law) Guaranteed that English subjects had rights under the law Limited the power of the king over all of his subjects Guaranteed that the law had to operate in an orderly way that everyone knew about (called “Due Process”) Jury trial by their peers Was a contract between the English King and his subjects He could not raise taxes without permission from the nobles.

9 Parliament England’s national legislature (elected law makers who discuss, and vote on potential laws; work with the king)

10 Parliament (Con’t) 1295 King Edward I (John’s grandson) wanted to raise taxes for another war with France he called together rich nobles and lesser town leaders to discuss ways to pay for the war This meeting called Model Parliament Parliament limited the monarch’s power and gave English male citizens some way to have representation in government

11 By the mid 1300’s England’s Parliament divided into two houses:
House of Lords more powerful group in Parliament made of rich nobles and bishops House of Commons less powerful group made up of local town leaders and less wealthy prominent citizens

12 Divine Right

13 Divine Right 1600’S European kings claimed that God had chosen them to rule with absolute power over their subjects ● These kings argued they were responsible to God alone, and did not have to answer to the people

14 King James I ( )

15 King James I (con’t) ● From Scotland: ● became king of England ● James I did not know much about England’s laws, procedures, and customs: He clashed with Parliament a lot!


17 King James’ I 3 Conflicts
Church Puritans were trying to change Church of England, to make it less like Catholic Church As King, James was leader of Church of England and did not want his religious power limited MONEY James wanted more money Queen Elizabeth left James a large debt James wanted more money for himself and to wage war Parliament refused to raise taxes James ignored Parliament and tried to raise taxes any way COURTS James used his own personal courts and judges to administer justice He ignored Common Law and Due Process

18 King Charles I (r )

19 King Charles I (con’t) Charles became King 1625 when his father James I died ● Charles asked Parliament for money in 1628 ● In exchange for the money, Parliament demanded that King Charles accept the Petition of Right:

20 Petition of Right Demanded King put an end to taxing with out Parliament’s permission Demanded King put an end to housing troops in citizens’ homes Demanded King put an end to imprisoning citizens illegally

21 King Charles’ I Big Mistakes!!
King Charles I signed the document to get the money, but later ignored the promises 1629 King Charles dismissed Parliament 1640 Scots invade England, Charles forced to recall Parliament to get money to defend the country

22 English Civil War 1642 Royalists (supported English Monarchy)
Anti-Royalists won: They were led by Oliver Cromwell (King Charles I was Beheaded in 1649) Royalists (supported English Monarchy) Anti-Royalists (supported English Parliament)

23 Commonwealth of England
● Established under Oliver Cromwell Cromwell ruled England as a dictator He wanted to set up religious, social, and economic reforms He urged Parliament to put his reforms in place Parliament resisted 1653 Cromwell dissolved Parliament ● Cromwell created a new government called The Protectorate: He named himself Lord Protector (he became military dictator of England) He dies 1658: everyone happy!

24 The Restoration 1659 Cromwell’s son Richard took over as Lord Protector
He continued to be unpopular 1660 A new Parliament then decided to restore the monarchy (have a king again)

25 The Restoration (con’t)
● Parliament invited Charles Stuart (son of King Charles I) to come from France and become England’s king (King Charles II r ) ● This is The Restoration ● Under King Charles II Parliament kept the powers it gained the previous 2 decades

26 Habeas Corpus

27 Glorious Revolution 1689 ● Charles II dies 1685
● his brother King James II takes over as king (Catholic, believed in Divine Right) ● The people wanted James’ daughter Mary to take over when he died because she was Protestant (Christian, but not Catholic) ●1689 Parliament withdraws support for King James II and offers the throne to James’ Protestant daughter Mary (“You’re Fired!!!)

28 Glorious Revolution 1689 (con’t)
● 1689 Parliament crowns William and Mary co-rulers of England ● Turning point in England’s history: ● Proves that power is now in the hands of Parliament, not the king!

29 Constitutional Monarchy
● England was now a Constitutional Monarchy: a kingdom with a constitution to check the powers of the king and protect the rights of the citizens ● Powers of the ruler are restricted by a constitution and the laws of the country ● Parliament could impose its will on the monarchs

30 English Bill of Rights 1689 limited the power of the monarch
a list of freedoms and rights that all English citizens were guaranteed to have no matter who the leader was limited the power of the monarch protected free speech in Parliament ●Monarch could not raise an army during peacetime without Parliament’s permission Monarch forbidden from taxing with out Parliament’s permission ●Cruel and unusual punishment were forbidden

31 England’s Legacy

32 Conclusion This process began with the Magna Carta (1215) and was fully in place with the Bill of Rights (1689) Bill of Rights set an example for American colonies when they decided to rebel almost 100 years later

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