2King Henry II King of England (r. 1154-1189) Gifted king, considered one of the great statesmen of the 12th century
3Jury Trial One of King Henry II’s (1154-1189) greatest achievements A judge would seek the counsel of 12 male citizens of the area before deciding guilt or innocence
4Common LawOver time England developed “Common Law” legal system: it was common to all of England, not just particular areasThese were established laws, procedures, and legal codes that came to be universally accepted (not just up to a king or lord to decide rules and laws)
6Magna Carta 1215 (Con’t)King John I fought costly unsuccessful wars with FranceThese wars led to raised taxes in EnglandAngry English nobles rebelled and forced John to recognize their political and civil rights
7Magna Carta 1215 (Con’t)They wrote these demands down and called it the Magna Carta (“Great Charter” in Latin)
8Magna Carta 1215 (Con’t)Guaranteed that English monarchs could not rule any way they wanted (follow Common Law)Guaranteed that English subjects had rights under the lawLimited the power of the king over all of his subjectsGuaranteed that the law had to operate in an orderly way that everyone knew about (called “Due Process”)Jury trial by their peersWas a contract between the English King and his subjectsHe could not raise taxes without permission from the nobles.
9ParliamentEngland’s national legislature (elected law makers who discuss, and vote on potential laws; work with the king)
10Parliament (Con’t)1295 King Edward I (John’s grandson) wanted to raise taxes for another war with Francehe called together rich nobles and lesser town leaders to discuss ways to pay for the warThis meeting called Model ParliamentParliament limited the monarch’s power and gave English male citizens some way to have representation in government
11By the mid 1300’s England’s Parliament divided into two houses: House of Lordsmore powerful group in Parliamentmade of rich nobles and bishopsHouse of Commonsless powerful groupmade up of local town leaders and less wealthy prominent citizens
13Divine Right1600’S European kings claimed that God had chosen them to rule with absolute power over their subjects● These kings argued they were responsible to God alone, and did not have to answer to the people
17King James’ I 3 Conflicts ChurchPuritans were trying to change Church of England, to make it less like Catholic ChurchAs King, James was leader of Church of England and did not want his religious power limitedMONEYJames wanted more moneyQueen Elizabeth left James a large debtJames wanted more money for himself and to wage warParliament refused to raise taxesJames ignored Parliament and tried to raise taxes any wayCOURTSJames used his own personal courts and judges to administer justiceHe ignored Common Law and Due Process
19King Charles I (con’t)Charles became King 1625 when his father James I died● Charles asked Parliament for money in 1628● In exchange for the money, Parliament demanded that King Charles accept the Petition of Right:
20Petition of RightDemanded King put an end to taxing with out Parliament’s permissionDemanded King put an end to housing troops in citizens’ homesDemanded King put an end to imprisoning citizens illegally
21King Charles’ I Big Mistakes!! King Charles I signed the document to get the money, but later ignored the promises1629 King Charles dismissed Parliament1640 Scots invade England, Charles forced to recall Parliament to get money to defend the country
22English Civil War 1642 Royalists (supported English Monarchy) Anti-Royalists won: They were led by Oliver Cromwell(King Charles I wasBeheaded in 1649)Royalists(supported English Monarchy)Anti-Royalists (supported English Parliament)
23Commonwealth of England ● Established under Oliver CromwellCromwell ruled England as a dictatorHe wanted to set up religious, social, and economic reformsHe urged Parliament to put his reforms in placeParliament resisted1653 Cromwell dissolved Parliament● Cromwell created a new government called TheProtectorate: He named himself Lord Protector (he became military dictator of England) He dies 1658: everyone happy!
24The Restoration 1659 Cromwell’s son Richard took over as Lord Protector He continued to be unpopular1660 A new Parliament then decided to restore the monarchy(have a king again)
25The Restoration (con’t) ● Parliament invited Charles Stuart (son ofKing Charles I) to come from France and becomeEngland’s king (King Charles II r )● This is The Restoration● Under King Charles II Parliament kept the powers itgained the previous 2 decades
27Glorious Revolution 1689 ● Charles II dies 1685 ● his brother King James II takes over as king (Catholic, believed in Divine Right)● The people wanted James’ daughter Mary to take over when he diedbecause she was Protestant (Christian, but not Catholic)●1689 Parliament withdraws support for King James II and offers the throne to James’ Protestant daughter Mary(“You’re Fired!!!)
28Glorious Revolution 1689 (con’t) ● 1689 Parliament crowns William and Mary co-rulers of England● Turning point in England’s history:● Proves that power is now inthe hands of Parliament,not the king!
29Constitutional Monarchy ● England was now a Constitutional Monarchy: a kingdom with aconstitution to check the powers of the king and protect the rights ofthe citizens● Powers of the ruler are restricted by a constitution and the laws of the country● Parliament could impose its will on the monarchs
30English Bill of Rights 1689 limited the power of the monarch a list of freedoms and rights that allEnglish citizens were guaranteed to haveno matter who the leader waslimited the power of the monarchprotected free speech in Parliament●Monarch could not raise an army duringpeacetime without Parliament’s permissionMonarch forbidden from taxing with out Parliament’s permission●Cruel and unusual punishment wereforbidden
32ConclusionThis process began with the Magna Carta (1215) and was fully in place with the Bill of Rights (1689)Bill of Rights set an example for American colonies when they decided to rebel almost 100 years later