Presentation on theme: "Chapter 23 Industrial Revolution American Revolution French Revolution."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 23 Industrial Revolution American Revolution French Revolution
The Industrial Revolution Begins in Britain in the 1600s-1700s –Land –Labor –Capital Spreads to Belgium, the United States, Germany, France Begins in the textile industry –Spinning Jenny, spinning mule, power loom, etc.
The Industrial Revolution Changed the way work was done –Work left the home – moved to factories Factory work difficult –Long hours (13-15 hrs/day, 6 days/week) –Dangerous (no regulations, no job guarantees) –Child Labor (smaller, can pay less) Environmental problems (pollution of rivers, air) Does eventually increase the standard of living
The Industrial Revolution Railroads –Railroads invented because of the steam engine (developed for water travel). –Easier, cheaper, faster to transport people and goods –Refrigerated railroad cars lead to fresh fruit, vegetables, and meat to be transported across the country –U.S. – Transcontinental railroad finished in May 1869.
The Industrial Revolution Other inventors –Alexander Graham Bell – telephone –Eli Whitney – Cotton Gin –James Watt – steam engine –Thomas Edison – light bulb –Ben Franklin - electricity
The American Revolution Colonists from Britain, France, Holland mostly settle Eastern U.S. Conflicts between Britain and France over territory lead to Seven Years War (1756- 1763) – (French and Indian War). Britain wins – gains all land between Mississippi River and Appalachian Mts.
The American Revolution Colonists believe they have a right to land because they helped win it. Conflicts with Native Americans cause Britain to forbid settlement of new area. In addition, Britain begins to tax settlers to help pay for the war. –Stamp Act –Tea Act
The American Revolution Inspired by Enlightenment ideas, colonists begin to protest unjust laws. Boston Massacre - 1770 Boston Tea Party - 1773 First Continental Congress – 1774 –Many divided on how to deal with Britain – intense loyalty to crown vs. revolutionaries
The American Revolution Lexington and Concord –April 19, 1775 Britain decided to seize stockpiles of weapons in Concord, Massachusetts. –Confronted by Minutemen at Lexington –Colonists win first battles of the revolution Second Continental Congress –Colonists decide to raise an army – appoint General George Washington as head
The American Revolution Declaration of Independence –The U.S. formally declares independence in July 1776 –Written by Thomas Jefferson – inspired by the Enlightenment. All people created equal Unalienable rights Governments derive powers from governed
The American Revolution War lasts from 1775-1781. Many battles – most important –Battle of Saratoga – French decide to join Americans –Battle of Yorktown – General Cornwallis surrenders to General Washington. Americans begin to form new government.
The American Revolution First government – Articles of Confederation –Weak central – strong states –Many problems By 1787 – everyone realizes the Articles needs revision –Constitutional Convention – summer of 1787 –Supposed to change Articles – eventually created whole new government
The American Revolution The Constitution –Inspired by Enlightenment philosophers – Voltaire, Montesquieu, Locke –Strong central government –Two houses in Congress (Great Compromise) Senate, House of Representatives –Three branches of government (Leg, Ex, Jud) –Federal System Federal gov’t, State gov’t, Local gov’t –Bill of Rights – first 10 amendments to Constitution Can change government when it needs it Currently 27 amendments have been ratified
The French Revolution Old Regime –System of estates used before the revolution –Three estates First estate – Clergy Second estate – Nobles Third estate – Everyone else –Bourgeoisie – Middle Class in Third Estate Bread crisis –Price skyrockets Marie Antoinette –Austrian Princess – spends huge amount of money – French hate her
The French Revolution King Louis XVI calls a meeting of the Estates-General – hasn’t met for 175 yrs. Each estate gets one vote – 1 st and 2 nd estate always outvotes 3 rd estate –Tried to change voting system – king denied it Third Estate votes to create the National Assembly Locked out of their meeting hall – take the Tennis Court Oath.
The French Revolution King Louis orders Swiss guards into the city – Parisians scared Storm the Bastille on July 14, 1789 for weapons – kill several guards and release prisoners Rebellion spreads to the countryside – peasants begin to burn nobles houses –Great Fear
The French Revolution The National Assembly creates a new Constitution –The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Modeled after Enlightenment, Declaration of Independence –Took over Church lands, clergy paid by the state Peasants did not like this
The French Revolution Louis XVI tried to escape to Austria – failed – increased his enemies National Assembly finalizes Constitution – becomes Legislative Assembly –Radicals, Moderates, Conservatives Emigres – Nobles who flee France Sans-culottes – Parisian shopkeepers who want greater voice in government.
The French Revolution Monarchs in other countries feared for their thrones –French declare war on Austria when Austria proposes putting Louis back on the throne. –Prussia joins war with Austria –Austria and Prussia win at first – Parisians imprison Louis and family in stone tower. –Also begin to raid and kill royalist prisoners September massacres
The French Revolution After the massacres – they declare a new government – the National Convention –Radical –Jacobins created –Abolished monarchy –Executed Louis by guillotine
The French Revolution Maximilien Robespierre –Radical leader –Changed calendar –Decks of cards changed –Committee of Public Safety Reign of Terror Queen Marie Antoinette – guillotined End of the Terror –Robespierre’s Death The Directory – Fourth government - moderate
Napoleon Napoleon – born in Corsica Became hero by saving royalists during riot – shrapnel Napoleon became leader of army – drove out one chamber of legislature – helped to create three consuls –He became first consul and assumed dictatorial powers of France Coup d’etat
Napoleon Pretended to be elected – plebiscite taken – gave all power to Napoleon –Tax collection, national bank, dismissed corrupt officials, created public schools, gave some power back to the Catholic Church, –Napoleonic Code – set of uniform laws Freedoms of speech and and press limited Women’s rights limited Slavery restored in colonies
Napoleon Tried to regain power in Atlantic world –Lost Haiti –Decided to sell Louisiana to U.S. ($15 million) Focused on Europe –Eventually signed peace treaties with Austria, Prussia, and Russia –Lost only to Britian – Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon Three costly mistakes –Tried to hurt British trade Continental system – hurt France and continent instead –Invasion of Portugal Spain revolted –Invasion of Russia Scorched Earth policy
Napoleon Weakness caused his enemies to attack He was defeated and exiled to the island of Elba (off Italy). Three months later tried to return –Hundred Days Ruled for about 3 months –Finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo –Exiled to St. Helena in South Atlantic
Congress of Vienna Congress held to stabilize Europe –Three goals Surround France with strong countries Restore Balance of Power to Europe Restore monarchs to thrones –Klemens von Metternich of Austria most important Concert of Europe –System of alliances formed to prevent future wars –Holy Alliance Austria, Russia, Prussia Nationalism