Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution and Napoleon (1789-1815) Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:
The French Revolution and Napoleon (1789-1815) Chapter 7
The French Revolution Begins Section 1
Key Idea Economic and social inequalities in the “Old Regime” helped cause the French Revolution
The Old Order in France Old Order: – Social and political system in France 3 Estates (social classes): – First Estate – Second Estate – Third Estate
First Estate Small percentage of Population Owned 10 Percent of land in France! Mostly members of Roman Catholic Church
Second Estate Two percent of population Owned 20 Percent of land in France Paid almost nothing in taxes Mostly rich nobles
Third Estate 97 Percent of Population! Three Groups: – Bourgeoisie (Bur zhwah ZEE) Middle Class Well Educated and wealthy Paid high taxes No social privileges Believed in Enlightenment ideas
Third Estate Three Groups (cont’d): – The Workers Received low wages Paid high taxes Often out of a job Would attack food suppliers if they couldn’t afford food – The Peasants 80 Percent of France’s population! Paid half their income in taxes to the wealthy
The Forces of Change Enlightenment Ideas: – Members of Third Estate were spreading these ideas; inspired by American Revolution Economic Troubles: – Despite better production and trade, debt and cost of living was increasing
The Forces of Change A Weak Leader: – Louis XVI (16 th ) was indecisive on these matters – Imposed taxes on Second Estate Nobles – Second Estate forced him to call a meeting called the Estates General
The Estates-General (1789) An assembly of representatives from all three of France’s Estates met – First time since the middle ages – In years past, each Estate met separately and had ONE vote – Third Estate (97 Percent of population) didn’t like this The other two estates could outvote them!
The Estates-General (1789) The Bourgeoisie members of Third Estate wanted a National Assembly instead – Delegates from all Three Estates would meet together in one room instead of three – This would give Third estate huge advantage since they would have more delegates
The Estates-General (1789) On June 17, 1789 the delegates of the Third Estate voted to create a National Assembly – This proclaimed an end to Absolute Monarchy in France – First act of Revolution Three days later, Third Estate was locked out of their meeting room – Met in an indoor tennis court instead, promising not to leave until a new constitution was written – Became known as the “Tennis Court Oath”
Tennis Court Oath (1789)
King Louis XVI Reacts Orders his mercenary Swiss guards to surround Versailles People in Paris hear about this: – Start to gather weapons in fear of an attack on the city by Louis and his mercenary army – On July 14, 1789 a mob stormed a Paris prison called the Bastille, looking for weapons
Storming the Bastille Mob took control of the prison Killed many of its guards Paraded around Paris with heads on pikes Considered French version of our July 4 th – Great symbol of revolution
The Great Fear A panic spreads throughout France – Mobs attack nobles – Angry women, upset about the cost of bread in Paris, storm the palace of Versailles and demand the king and queen go to Paris to fix the problem. – The king and queen leave Versailles and never return!
What We Learned Today: France was a country full of citizens who did not enjoy equal status These inequalities led to the beginning of the French Revolution How did the Enlightenment affect these changes towards revolution in France?
Revolution Brings Reform and Terror Section 2
Key Idea The revolutionary government of France made reforms but also used terror and violence to retain power.
The National Assembly (1789) Ends privileges of First and Second Estates – All French men received equal rights – Reduced power of Catholic Church (First Estate) These laws divided revolutionary supporters – Some supported the church – Some supported the state
King Louis XVI As the National Assembly assumed more power: – Louis became fearful for his life – He and his wife, Marie Antoinette, tried to escape to the countryside – They were caught, brought back to Paris, to live under guard night and day
The Legislative Assembly (1791) The National Assembly drew up laws that gave the king and queen very little power Soon, they handed over power to a new group: – The Legislative Assembly – This became divided Some wanted to end the revolution Some wanted more radical changes
Threats from Outside France European countries feared the French Revolution would spread to their countries too – Many sent in troops to restore power to Louis XVI – The French people thought the king and queen were trying to help these soldiers – Mobs often attacked nobles in retaliation
The National Convention (1792) Government takes strong steps to protect the country – Takes away all of king’s powers – New government, The National Convention, declared Louis a common citizen Allowed them to put him to death! Ordered thousands of French men into the army
Death of Louis XVI
Maximilien Robespierre (1793) Takes over rule of France Made many changes to keep France safe – Took away a lot of rights and freedoms – Known as the “Reign of Terror” – Ended in 1794, when Robespierre was put to death French people were tired of violence and wanted peace and stability A new and strong leader would step in to provide this…