Presentation on theme: "Ch. 23 Notes The French Revolution and Napoleon (1789 – 1815) E.Q. What were the causes and effects of the French Revolution? How did Napoleon become the."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 23 Notes The French Revolution and Napoleon (1789 – 1815) E.Q. What were the causes and effects of the French Revolution? How did Napoleon become the emperor of France?
Bastille – French prison, Paris bourgeoisie – merchants, skilled workers, 3 rd Estate Committee of Public Safety – Robespierre, executed enemies of Revolution conservatives – traditional Declaration of the Rights of Man – Revolutionary statement delegates – representatives deserted - AWOL emperor – absolute ruler
First Estate – Catholic clergy mob – unpredictable crowd radicals – extreme reform representative government – will of people royalists – monarch supporters Second Estate – French nobles stability – order, secure Third Estate – other than clergy, nobles Versailles – French palace
FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS 1.Old Order – Old Regime, estates - Privileged estates – 1 st (clergy), 2 nd (Nobles) - 3 rd estate (3 groups – bourgeoisie, workers, peasants) 2.Forces of Change - Enlightenment ideas - economic trouble – Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette
- weak leader – Louis XVI calls Estates – General meeting to approve tax 3.Dawn of the Revolution - National Assembly (Third Estate) > Tennis Court Oath - Storming the Bastille – July 14, 1789, Paris
4.A Great Fear sweeps France > peasant revolt; attack Versailles; King – Queen left Versailles REVOLUTION BRINGS REFORM AND TERROR 5.Assembly Reforms France – radical changes - Rights of man > “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity” not for woman
- State-controlled Church – sells to pay debt, peasants upset - Louis tries to escape 6.Division Develops - Limited monarchy – legislative assembly - Factions split France – radicals, moderates, conservatives – emigres, sans - culottes
7.War and Execution - France at war – September massacres > National Convention (republic) > Austria, Prussia - Jacobins take control – radicals, Marot – Louis XVI faced the guillotine 8.Terror grips France - Robespiere assumes control > Reign of Terror
9. End of the Terror > death of Robespierre > Directory government > Napoleon NAPOLEON FORGES AN EMPIRE 10. Napoleon seizes power - hero of the hour – commander of the army - Coup d’ Etat
11. Napoleon rules France – plebiscite vote - Restoring order at home – lycees, economy, concordat with Pope Pius VII, Napoleonic code Napoleon crowned as emperor - Napoleon crowned as emperor 12. Napoleon creates an empire - Loss of American territories – Saint - Loss of American territories – Saint Dominique (Haiti), Louisiana Dominique (Haiti), Louisiana Territory (economy, punish British) Territory (economy, punish British)
- Conquering Europe – (Austria, Prussia, Russia) largest since Romans - Battle of Trafalgar – lost to British (Nelson) - French Empire – huge, unstable, 5 yrs.
NAPOLEON’S EMPIRE COLLAPSES 13. Napoleon’s costly mistakes - Continental system – blockade Britain - Peninsular War (Iberian) – Spain – guerrillas - Invasion of Russia – MISTAKE > Russian scorched-earth policy
14. Napoleon’s Downfall – everybody at war with Napoleon - Napoleon suffers defeat > Elba - Hundred Days > Waterloo, Belgium (British, Wellington) > St. Helena CONGRES OF VIENNA 15. Metternich’s Plan for Europe (Austria) - Containment of France - Balance of power - Legitimacy
16. Political changes beyond Vienna - Conservative Europe – Holy Alliance (Prussia, Austria), Concert of Europe - Revolution in Latin America – Mexico - Long-term legacy – nationalism > revolutions > democracy