Presentation on theme: "Ch. 23 Notes The French Revolution and Napoleon (1789 – 1815)"— Presentation transcript:
1Ch. 23 Notes The French Revolution and Napoleon (1789 – 1815) E.Q. What were the causes and effects of the French Revolution? How did Napoleon become the emperor of France?
2Bastille – French prison, Paris bourgeoisie – merchants, skilled workers, 3rd Estate Committee of Public Safety – Robespierre, executed enemies of Revolution conservatives – traditional Declaration of the Rights of Man – Revolutionary statement delegates – representatives deserted - AWOL emperor – absolute ruler
3First Estate – Catholic clergy mob – unpredictable crowd radicals – extreme reform representative government – will of people royalists – monarch supporters Second Estate – French nobles stability – order, secure Third Estate – other than clergy, nobles Versailles – French palace
4FRENCH REVOLUTION BEGINS Old Order – Old Regime, estates- Privileged estates – 1st (clergy),2nd (Nobles)- 3rd estate (3 groups – bourgeoisie,workers, peasants)Forces of Change- Enlightenment ideas- economic trouble – Louis XVI, MarieAntoinette
5- weak leader – Louis XVI calls Estates – General meeting toapprove taxDawn of the Revolution- National Assembly (Third Estate) >Tennis Court Oath- Storming the Bastille – July 14, 1789,Paris
6A Great Fear sweeps France > peasant revolt; attack Versailles; King – Queenleft VersaillesREVOLUTION BRINGS REFORM AND TERRORAssembly Reforms France – radicalchanges- Rights of man > “Liberty, Equality,Fraternity” not for woman
7- State-controlled Church – sells to pay debt, peasants upset- Louis tries to escapeDivision Develops- Limited monarchy – legislativeassembly- Factions split France – radicals,moderates, conservatives – emigres,sans - culottes
8War and Execution- France at war – Septembermassacres > National Convention(republic) > Austria, Prussia- Jacobins take control – radicals,Marot – Louis XVI faced theguillotineTerror grips France- Robespiere assumes control > Reignof Terror
99. End of the Terror > death of Robespierre > Directory government > Napoleon NAPOLEON FORGES AN EMPIRE 10. Napoleon seizes power - hero of the hour – commander of the army - Coup d’ Etat
10Napoleon rules France – plebiscite vote - Restoring order at home – lycees,economy, concordat with PopePius VII, Napoleonic code- Napoleon crowned as emperorNapoleon creates an empire- Loss of American territories – SaintDominique (Haiti), LouisianaTerritory (economy, punish British)
11- Conquering Europe – (Austria, Prussia, Russia) largest since Romans - Battle of Trafalgar – lost to British (Nelson) - French Empire – huge, unstable, 5 yrs.
12NAPOLEON’S EMPIRE COLLAPSES Napoleon’s costly mistakes- Continental system – blockade Britain- Peninsular War (Iberian) – Spain –guerrillas- Invasion of Russia – MISTAKE >Russian scorched-earth policy
1314. Napoleon’s Downfall – everybody at war with Napoleon- Napoleon suffers defeat > Elba- Hundred Days > Waterloo, Belgium(British, Wellington) > St. HelenaCONGRES OF VIENNAMetternich’s Plan for Europe (Austria)- Containment of France- Balance of power- Legitimacy
1416. Political changes beyond Vienna - Conservative Europe – Holy Alliance (Prussia, Austria), Concert of Europe - Revolution in Latin America – Mexico - Long-term legacy – nationalism > revolutions > democracy