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The French Revolution Chapter 22 1789-1815 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity.

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution Chapter 22 1789-1815 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity."— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution Chapter 22 1789-1815 Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

2 Europe 1750-1789

3 Holy Roman Empire

4 Revolution and France Old Regime – existing system of Feudalism People divided into three estates, or classes –First Estate –Second Estate –Third Estate

5 First Estate Clergy of Roman Catholic Church Spurned Enlightenment ideas Owned 10% of the land 2% of income to taxes

6 Second Estate Rich nobles Held high offices in government Spurned Enlightenment ideas Owned 20% of the land Paid almost no taxes

7 Third Estate Consisted of three groups –Bourgeoisie –City Workers –Peasants 98% of population 80% of France are peasants

8 Third Estate Peasants paid nearly half of their income in taxes, dues to nobles, and tithes to the church Taxes on everyday items such as salt and soap. Growing resentment towards 1 st and 2 nd Estates Spreading of Enlightenment ideas


10 Weak Government King Louis XVI inherited debt Borrowed to help American colonies defeat the British Crop failures and bread shortages Paid no attention to the crisis Marie Antoinette – overspending and uncaring

11 Estates General France faced bankruptcy and Louis XVI called Estates General An assembly of representatives from all three estates Met on May 5, 1789 at Versailles First time in 175 years

12 Estates General Clergy and Nobles were always able to out vote the Third Estate – one vote per Estate Third estate wanted each delegate to have a vote – gives them the advantage The King ordered the vote the old way Third Estate abolishes power and name themselves National Assembly

13 Tennis Court Oath June 17, 1789 Third Estate votes to establish the National Assembly proclaiming the end of monarchy and the start of representative government Tennis Court Oath – indoor tennis court where delegates would stay until they made a new constitution

14 The Bastille Infamous Paris prison Mob storms the Bastille to get supplies and gun powder Great symbol of Revolution Bastille Day July 14 – similar to July 4

15 Great Fear -- Senseless panic spread through France Peasants became mobs and terrorized nobles Peasants storm Versailles to attack the King and Queen Royal family flees and power is changing hands


17 Reform National Assembly tries to ease the fears Nobles say they have always believed in life, liberty, property Feudal system abolished Now everyone is equal…?

18 Legislative Assembly Limited Constitutional Monarchy Legislative Assembly has power to make laws Power to approve or veto any action the monarchy may take Still same problems as before

19 Legislative Assembly Three divisions Radicals Moderates Conservatives

20 Radicals Sat on the left side of the hall “Left-wing” Opposed the king and any monarchy Wanted sweeping changes and that people have full power

21 Moderates Sat the the center “Centrists” Wanted some changes Not as many as radicals

22 Conservatives Sat on the right side “Right-wing” Upheld the idea of a limited monarchy Wanted few changes in government

23 National Convention New name of Government Begins September 1792

24 French Politics During the First Years of the Revolution How would you describe them? What would life be like for the majority of the people? One paragraph answer supported by information from class

25 War with Austria 1792 French radicals wanted to spread their ideas (girondins) Austria and Prussia wanted Louis XVI back on throne Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria Prussia joined Austria in war

26 King Louis XVI Executed Political clubs – The Jacobins – wanted to remove the King permanently National Convention officially abolished the monarchy Louis tried for treason and found guilty Guillotined January 21, 1793

27 The Terror The Jacobins had internal enemies as well as foreign wars Maximilien Robespierre assumes control Closes churches, changes calendar (no Sundays), “Republic of Virtue”

28 Committee of Public Safety Robespierre – de facto Dictator Reign of Terror “Enemies of the state” Tried in AM guillotined in PM Marie Antoinette guillotined Most afraid of other revolutionaries 30,000–40,000 killed – mostly peasants

29 End of Robespierre National Convention and other leaders knew they were not safe Executed on July 28, 1794 Public opinion shifted to the Right The Directory 1795 Corruption is rampant Death Mask of Robespierre

30 French Governments 1789-1795 The Old Regime The National Assembly The Legislative Assembly The National Convention French Governments 1789-1795 Assignment

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