Presentation on theme: "French Revolution. 3 Social Groups The French political system was made up of 3 estates – social classes. 1.First Estate – The Roman Catholic Church 2.Second."— Presentation transcript:
3 Social Groups The French political system was made up of 3 estates – social classes. 1.First Estate – The Roman Catholic Church 2.Second Estate – The rich nobles 3.Third Estate – EVERYONE else!!
American Revolution The success of the American Revolution made the French believe they could do the same thing. Their ideas of liberty, freedom and fairness were important for the French.
Economic Troubles - Taxes The First Estate paid 2% of their income to taxes. The Second Estate paid less than 1% of their income to taxes. The Third Estate paid 50% of their income to taxes. They paid so many taxes that many could not even buy food. This made the Third Estate ANGRY!!!
Enlightenment The Third Estate believed in the ideas of the Enlightenment. They questioned the structure of society and the job of government. They began to demand equality, liberty and democracy!
Weak Leadership Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were the leaders in France. He was a weak leader. She spent too much money. To pay France’s debt, Louis decided to tax the Nobles in the Second Estate. They were not happy!
Estates General (1789-1793) The nobles called for a meeting of the Estates-General – an assembly of representatives from all three estates. Was held at Versailles On May 5, 1789. Each estate met in a separate hall and voted in their hall. PROBLEM: The First and Second Estates would always vote against the Third Estate! NOT FAIR!!
National Assembly The Third Estate wanted change. They voted to establish (set up) the National Assembly which would pass laws and reform in the name of the French people.
Revolution? If the National Assembly took control, they would end Absolute Monarchy and start a Representative government. The King, the First Estate, and The Second Estate were not happy!! This was the first move to REVOLUTION!
Tennis Court Oath After the National Assembly was established, the Third Estate delegates got locked out of their meeting room. They broke down a door to an indoor tennis court and pledged to stay there until a new constitution had been drawn up. This was the Tennis Court Oath!
Swiss Guards Louis XVI was worried about everything that was happening at Versailles. He sent a mercenary army (group of soldiers who work for pay) of Swiss guards to surround Versailles. The foreigners worried the French citizens.
Bastille People were afraid of the mercenary army at Versailles. They wanted to protect themselves. They stormed the Bastille (a prison in Paris) to get weapons. This was the first act of revolution. Bastille Day – July 14 in France!
Great Fear The revolution at Bastille soon spread. The peasants were afraid. Their panic became known as the Great Fear. Peasants broke into homes, burned buildings and destroyed papers. One group of women marched on Versailles and forced King Louis and his family to leave.
Actions of the National Assembly Privileges were the same for everyone. Declaration of the Rights of Man was written to give everyone equal justice, freedom of speech and freedom of religion. The Catholic Church became state- controlled. A new constitution was written to create a limited monarchy and a Legislative Assembly.
Second Stage Radical revolution Other monarchs (Kings and Queens) were worried by what was happening. They tried to support Louis and his family. The people arrested Louis and has family and defeated the other monarchs. The Legislative Assembly changed the Constitution, ended the Monarchy, elected a new legislature, and declared France a republic. Jacobin’s take control led by Robespierre.
Second Stage Reign of Terror (1793-1794) Robespierre ruled as a dictator. His era was called the Reign of Terror. He developed the Committee for Public Safety to protect the Revolution from its enemies. If you were guilty you were killed. Reforms New calendar (no Sundays) Closed churches Universal suffrage Slavery eliminated Guillotine –40,000 die –King and Queen die
Third Stage—Return of the moderates ( 1794-1799) Robespierre was feared. He was executed in 1794 by guillotine. Moderates gained control of National Convention. New constitution developed –Rule by the Directory (5 moderate men) –2 House Legislature formed (elected leaders – moderates) Directory leaders chose Napoleon Bonaparte to lead the military.
Enter Napoleon Bonaparte Directory leaders were criticized for poor leadership. The people saw Napoleon as a hero. In 1799 Napoleon took over the legislature, dissolved the Directory, and took the title of first consul with the powers of a dictator. This was a coup – Sudden seizure of power.
Napoleon’s Rules 1.Set up a national bank and new tax system 2.Opened lycees – government-run public schools. Graduates would get government jobs based on merit not family connections. 3.Signed concordat – government recognized the church but it had not control in national affairs. 4.Set up the Napoleonic Code – a system of laws.
Napoleon as Emperor In 1804, Napoleon named himself emperor and the French voters supported him. He crowned himself showing he had more power than the Church.
Napoleon’s Empire He had already added the Austrian Netherlands, parts of Italy and Switzerland to France’s control. In 1805 he defeated Russia, Austria and Sweden in battle and forced them to sign treaties. This created the largest empire since the Romans, leaving only Britain as a rival army to France.
Napoleon’s France use the map on page 666 in your book. Label all the countries controlled by Napoleon (the 9 purple countries) on your copy of the map.
Napoleon’s Collapse Continental System – blockade stopped all trade with Britain and Europe. Peninsula War – war to force Spain to participate in the blockade. The British supported Spain in the war. Napoleon lost 30,000 men in battle. Napoleon went to war with Russia to force them to accept the blockade. Napoleon lost 410,000 soldiers.
Napoleon’s Downfall All the military losses weakened France’s Grand Army All the conquered nations joined forces against Napoleon Napoleon was defeated and exiled (sent away) to Elba, an island in Italy.
Napoleon Returns After Napoleon was exiled, King Louis XVI’s brother became King of France. The people did not like him. Napoleon found out about this and left exile to try to take over France again. The people of France were happy to see him. They named him emperor again.
The Hundred Days Napoleon took his army to fight the British in Waterloo, Belgium. Napoleon’s army was defeated. Napoleon was only emperor for 100 days. He was exiled again to St. Helena in the South Atlantic. He died 6 years later in 1821.