King Louis XVI (16 th ) Louis XVI – terrible leader Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette spent money on themselves and not the people The people of France are MAD!
The Estates General First Estate – Church Second Estate – Nobility Third Estate – bourgeoisie, laborers, and peasants Each estate had one vote
MEETING OF THE ESTATES GENERAL (ALL 3 ESTATES OF FRANCE MEET FOR FIRST TIME SINCE 1618 IN 1789)
Beginning of the Revolution National Assembly (made up of 3 rd estate) – wanted to write a new constitution, but the king locked them out of their meeting hall Tennis Court Oath – meeting of 3 rd estate; vowed never to break up until a new Constitution is written
Tennis Court Oath THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY (MADE UP OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE 3 RD ESTATE) MEET AND TAKE OATH TO WRITE FRANCE A CONSTITUTION)
Revolution Continues… Crowds in Paris storm the Bastille (prison) in July because it represented royal authority ** First major physical action of the Revolution
Other Actions by National Assembly March of Versailles – 1789, (mostly women) protest over high food prices and rumors King was plotting against the National Assembly. The royal family was brought back to Paris.
1791 Constitution Kept monarchy with very limited power Gave taxpaying men ages 25 and older many voting rights Results: Austria and Prussia threatened war; French Legislative Assembly declared war and lost 1792 Legislative Assembly became the National Convention, which declared France a Republic
Maximillien Robespierre – leader of Radical (extreme) group called the Jacobins; led the National Convention
Changes in Society King executed to prevent return to monarchy in 1793 Everything with connections to royalty or the Church was outlawed/changed Playing cards (no kings or queens) Calendar – 3 weeks of 10 days in a month Metric system Churches in Paris were closed
Reign of Terror Many disliked the Radical changes To prevent a counterrevolution, Radical leaders executed anyone suspected of being an enemy 17,000 people in 10 months Eventually Robespierre was executed
“The springs of popular government in revolution are at once virtue and terror: virtue, without which terror is fatal; terror, without which virtue is powerless. Terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, sever, inflexible; it is therefore an emanation of virtue.” - Robespierre, Justification of the Use of Terror
After the Terror New constitution: fewer people could vote Elected body called Directory Weak and corrupt Directors left France with a power vacuum
RISE OF NAPOLEON Napoleon won lands for France in Italy and Spain. Became a national hero for his efforts November 1799 – armed supporters of Napoleon surrounded the Directory and forced a coup d'état and put Napoleon in power of France. Soon elected emperor of France
Napoleon’s Empire Introduced religious toleration Abolished serfdom Reduced power of the Catholic Church Drafted majority of men into the military and enforced high taxes.
Continental System A blockade to prevent French and allies from trading with Britain Britain required everyone else to ask permission to trade with the French
Napoleon’s Downfall Napoleon sends 500,000 troops to invade Russia France wins, but are out of supplies & food and Napoleon is forced to retreat. Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia join forces and crush Napoleon and his army Napoleon is forced into exile on the island of Elba.
BUT he is FREED by supporters and rebuilds the army- Hundred Days (of glory) begin Europe unites again and defeats Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo (Duke of Wellington led British forces) Napoleon exiled until his death on St. Helena Island.
Congress of Vienna Meeting of diplomats in support of monarchies (reactionaries) to redraw Europe’s boarders Led by Prince Klemens von Metternich France went back to 1792 territory and had to pay damages to countries occupied by Napoleon German Confederation (loose gathering of city-states) created Monarchy restored in Spain, France, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily