2 The French Revolution Begins Economic and social inequalities in the Old Regime help cause the French Revolution.
3 The Old OrderThe Old Regime – social and political system in France during the 1770s.Estates – three social classes of France’s Old Regime
4 The First EstateCatholic ClergyOwned 10% of landPaid few taxes
5 Second EstateRich Nobles2% of the populationOwned 20% of the land
6 Third Estate97% of the people are peasants, urban workers, middle classHave few privileges, pay heavy taxes, want change
7 Forces of Change Enlightenment Ideas Individual Rights, Democracy Economic TroublesHigh Taxes and rising costs damage the economyKing Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette known for extravagance, gambling, and overspending.Louis doubles Nation’s debt, banks refuse to lend more money.
8 Forces of Change A Weak Leader Louis’s poor decision and lack of patience add to France’s problemsHe calls Estates-General – meeting of representatives from all three estates.
9 Dawn of the Revolution The National Assembly Third Estate has little power under old rulesThird Estate sets up National Assembly – new legislature to make reforms.Tennis Court Oath – delegates decide to write new constitution for France.
10 Tennis Court Oath A pledge made by the National Assembly vowing to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution.
11 Storming the BastilleRumors fly in Paris that Louis wants to destroy the national assembly.Mob attacks and seizes the Bastille, killing guards on July 14, 1789.
13 A Great Fear Sweeps France Rebellionrumors and panic spread through FranceGreat Fear – attacks by peasants taking place across FranceOctober 1789, Bread Revolts – women revolt over rising price of bread.They demand action, forcing Louis to return from Versailles to Paris
14 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror The revolutionary government of France makes reforms makes reforms but also uses terror and violence to retain power
15 The Assembly Reforms France Declaration of The Rights of ManNational Assembly adopts Declaration of the Rights of Man and the CitizenRevolutionary leaders use the slogan“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
16 More ReformsA State-controlled ChurchAssembly seizes church lands, turns clergy into public officialsThis action concerns many peasants who are devout CatholicsLouis tries to escape- Worried for his life Louis tries to escape but the royal family is captured by the Netherlands border.
17 Divisions Develop in Government Factions Split FranceMajor problems including debt, food shortages remainAssembly splits into Radicals, Conservatives, and ModeratesEmigres – nobles who flee country, want Old Regime back in powerSans-culottes – lower class who want more changes from the Revolution
19 War and Execution Problems with Other Countries Austria and Prussia support Louis, France declares war.Prussian forces soon threaten ParisParisian mod jails royal family and kill guardsMob breaks into prisons, killing over 1000, including many who support LouisPressured by mob Legislative assembly dissolves monarchyNational Convention takes office forming French republic.
20 Jacobins take ControlJacobins – radical political organization behind governmental changesAfter a close vote Louis XVI is found guilty of treason and beheadedGuillotine – machine designed during the Revolution to behead people.
21 The War ContinuesThe French Army wins great victories over Prussia and AustriaIn 1793 Britain, Spain, and Holland join forces against FranceNational Convention orders draft of 300,000 to reinforce army
22 Robespierre Assumes Control Maximilien Robespierre – Jacobin leader rule France for a year Become leader of the Committee for Public Safety, a dictator Reign of Terror – Robespierre’s rule, which includes killing many opponents Thousands die during the terror, including former allies and Marie Antoinette 85% of those who die during the terror are middle or lower class.
24 End of the Terror Another change in government Robespierre arrested and executedTerror results in public opinion shifting away from RadicalsModerate leaders write a new constitutionTwo-house legislature and Five-man Directory restore orderNew Government makes Napoleon Bonaparte commander of armies