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The French Revolution Chapter 7 sec. 1 & 2.

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution Chapter 7 sec. 1 & 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution Chapter 7 sec. 1 & 2

2 The French Revolution Begins
Economic and social inequalities in the Old Regime help cause the French Revolution.

3 The Old Order The Old Regime – social and political system in France during the 1770s. Estates – three social classes of France’s Old Regime

4 The First Estate Catholic Clergy Owned 10% of land Paid few taxes

5 Second Estate Rich Nobles 2% of the population Owned 20% of the land

6 Third Estate 97% of the people are peasants, urban workers, middle class Have few privileges, pay heavy taxes, want change

7 Forces of Change Enlightenment Ideas Individual Rights, Democracy
Economic Troubles High Taxes and rising costs damage the economy King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette known for extravagance, gambling, and overspending. Louis doubles Nation’s debt, banks refuse to lend more money.

8 Forces of Change A Weak Leader
Louis’s poor decision and lack of patience add to France’s problems He calls Estates-General – meeting of representatives from all three estates.

9 Dawn of the Revolution The National Assembly
Third Estate has little power under old rules Third Estate sets up National Assembly – new legislature to make reforms. Tennis Court Oath – delegates decide to write new constitution for France.

10 Tennis Court Oath A pledge made by the National Assembly vowing to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution.

11 Storming the Bastille Rumors fly in Paris that Louis wants to destroy the national assembly. Mob attacks and seizes the Bastille, killing guards on July 14, 1789.

12 Storming the Bastille

13 A Great Fear Sweeps France
Rebellion rumors and panic spread through France Great Fear – attacks by peasants taking place across France October 1789, Bread Revolts – women revolt over rising price of bread. They demand action, forcing Louis to return from Versailles to Paris

14 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
The revolutionary government of France makes reforms makes reforms but also uses terror and violence to retain power

15 The Assembly Reforms France
Declaration of The Rights of Man National Assembly adopts Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Revolutionary leaders use the slogan “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”

16 More Reforms A State-controlled Church Assembly seizes church lands, turns clergy into public officials This action concerns many peasants who are devout Catholics Louis tries to escape - Worried for his life Louis tries to escape but the royal family is captured by the Netherlands border.

17 Divisions Develop in Government
Factions Split France Major problems including debt, food shortages remain Assembly splits into Radicals, Conservatives, and Moderates Emigres – nobles who flee country, want Old Regime back in power Sans-culottes – lower class who want more changes from the Revolution

18 Sans-culottes

19 War and Execution Problems with Other Countries
Austria and Prussia support Louis, France declares war. Prussian forces soon threaten Paris Parisian mod jails royal family and kill guards Mob breaks into prisons, killing over 1000, including many who support Louis Pressured by mob Legislative assembly dissolves monarchy National Convention takes office forming French republic.

20 Jacobins take Control Jacobins – radical political organization behind governmental changes After a close vote Louis XVI is found guilty of treason and beheaded Guillotine – machine designed during the Revolution to behead people.

21 The War Continues The French Army wins great victories over Prussia and Austria In 1793 Britain, Spain, and Holland join forces against France National Convention orders draft of 300,000 to reinforce army

22 Robespierre Assumes Control
Maximilien Robespierre – Jacobin leader rule France for a year Become leader of the Committee for Public Safety, a dictator Reign of Terror – Robespierre’s rule, which includes killing many opponents Thousands die during the terror, including former allies and Marie Antoinette 85% of those who die during the terror are middle or lower class.

23 Maximilien Robespierre

24 End of the Terror Another change in government
Robespierre arrested and executed Terror results in public opinion shifting away from Radicals Moderate leaders write a new constitution Two-house legislature and Five-man Directory restore order New Government makes Napoleon Bonaparte commander of armies

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