*Three Social Classes The clergy, or First Estate The nobility, or Second Estate Third Estate –*Bourgeoisie=upper middle class) –*Sans-culotte=lower middle class –Peasants=approx. 90%
*Problems in 1789 Social discontent –3 rd estate paid for everything Severe financial crisis –Deficit spending Serious food shortages –Bread riots King Louis –Pleasure before country –Weak and indecisive
Third Estate defied the king Claimed they represented the people *Proclaimed themselves the National Assembly –After thinking the king had locked them out of the meeting *Tennis court oath
* Bastille- July 14,1789 Angry Parisians stormed the Bastille thinking that it had weapons Event that quickly became the symbol of the French Revolution. 98 were killed 73 wounded National Assembly -Ended feudal Privileges -Issued the *Declaration of the Rights of Man -Set up limited monarchy
European Nobility’s Reaction *June 1791 Louis and Marie try to escape but are caught *Denounced the reforms of the French Revolution *By 1792, France was at war with most of Europe.
*The Jacobins Radical revolutionaries take control to the Assembly Declare war on Europe’s tyrannical monarchs
4 Stages of The Revolution *Stage One 1792, radicals control National Assembly –Abolished monarchy –In 1793, Louis XVI (June) and queen Marie Antoinette (Oct) executed * Stage Two July 1793-1794 –*Committee of Public Safety- religious toleration, outlawed slavery –40,000 French citizens to their deaths on the guillotine
The Guillotine 10/10/1789 On the second day of the Assembly debate about the Penal Code, Dr Guillotin submitted a proposition in six articles which included a recommendation that death, without the accompaniment of torture and by means of decapitation, should become the sole and standard form of capital punishment in France.
*Stage Three The Directory 1795-1799 Convention members turn on the committee New constitution –Causes chaos Politicians turn to a military hero –Napoleon Bonaparte (stage four) *1799 France had changed –Monarchy gone –Church under state control –Nationalism grew –State schools, social security
The Age of Napoleon *Rise to power –War Hero –1799 - 3 man Consulate –1802 named himself 1st Consul –1804 crowned himself Emperor of France *Reforms –Price control, public school –New Industry, public works –*Napoleonic Code Equality before the law Religious toleration Merit advancement
*Napoleon’s Grand Empire 1804 to 1814 Subdued great European powers Built a vast empire by annexing lands, making alliances, and war –In Spain he put his brother Joseph on the throne
*The Russian Campaign Sent his Grand Army (600,000) Scorched earth 10,000 returned
The End of an Era 1 st Downfall Spurred by rising nationalism – European nations rebellions –Failed invasion of Russia Napoleon Abdicated (1813) Return –The French were afraid the old ways would return –Napoleon escapes and many soldiers flock to his banner –March 1815 he enters Paris to cheering crowds 2 nd Downfall –June 18, 1815 he meets his Waterloo –Exiled to St. Helena
*The Congress of Vienna Tried to restore stability and order in Europe. Redrew national boundaries Restored hereditary monarchies Created the Concert of Europe –To maintain the balance of power –To suppress any uprisings inspired by the ideas of the French Revolution