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Chapter 12.  Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette, lived in Versailles Palace in France  People thought Marie Antoinette spent money too freely.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 12.  Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette, lived in Versailles Palace in France  People thought Marie Antoinette spent money too freely."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12

2  Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette, lived in Versailles Palace in France  People thought Marie Antoinette spent money too freely while they suffered and that Louis XVI was a weak king  King Louis XVI ruled as an absolute monarch

3  France practiced feudalism  Population divided into 3 estates First Estate  Clergy (high position in church)  Authority over peasants  Did not pay taxes or tithes

4 Second Estate  Nobles  Paid little taxes or tithes  Land owners  Authority over peasants

5  Third Estate  Divided into 2 groups: ▪ Bourgeoisie (wage earners) ▪ Many were wealthier, but not as high in social status as nobles ▪ Peasants ▪ Made up 90% of population ▪ Had to pay taxes and tithes ▪ Could not own land ▪ Could not influence laws

6 1. Division of the Estates 2. Money France was bankrupt from wars, palace, and corruption Many people blamed Marie-Antoinette for problems 1 st & 2 nd Estate refused to pay taxes

7 3. Bad Harvest  Bad weather led to no food  Peasants had smaller incomes but food prices rose  Unemployment  Starvation

8 4. Enlightenment Ideas - Philosophers inspired ordinary people to control their own government - Inspired by the American Revolution

9 5. Estates General Meeting Louis XVI wanted to reform taxes He was not prepared for the meeting Estates came up with their own ideas This led to the beginning of the Revolution… Third Estate declared themselves a “National Assembly”

10  3 rd Estate tired of arguing about voting rights  Created a constitution  Pledged the Tennis Court Oath not to leave until demands were met  1 st and 2 nd Estate became part of the National Assembly

11  The people were afraid that King Louis XVI was going to try to drive the National Assembly out  Captured and destroyed the Bastille prison as a symbol of the revolution  Became violent = “Great Fear”- destroying nobles houses and churches

12  National Assembly outlawed the tithe, feudal dues, and privileges of the First and Second Estates  Created the Declaration of Rights of Man which stated:  Men are born equal  Gave freedom of speech, press, and religion  Fair trial  “life, liberty, and fraternity”  Did not apply to women

13  Divided country into departments- local governments  Seized lands owned by Catholic church and sold to public  Reformed catholic church

14  Created a limited constitutional monarchy  Created 3 branches of government  National Assembly replaced by Legislative Assembly  King Louis agreed to constitution but secretly plotted to overthrow government and restore Old Regime  Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were caught and eventually beheaded

15  Constitution lasted less than 1 year  Weak executive and inexperienced legislature  Legislative Assembly became divided into 3 groups:  Conservatives- against the revolution; did not like change  Radicals- wanted the revolution; for change  Moderates- side varied on issue

16  National Convention  Replaced the Legislative Assembly  Responsible for writing new constitution  Elected by universal manhood suffrage (all males could vote)  Divided into 3 groups: ▪ Girondins- republicans/conservatives/ against revolution ▪ Jacobins- radicals/ for revolution ▪ Leaders: Danton, Robespierre, Marat ▪ No extreme views

17  1793-1794  Committee of Public Safety set up to protect France but taken over by Jacobins  Government suppressed counter-revolutionaries (against revolution)  Executed if against Revolution – Marie Antoinette was killed along with many peasants and bourgeoisie  Terror ended when Robespierre was arrested and beheaded  Wealthy middle class took control of National Convention

18  Committee of Public Safety  Create a democratic republic where people would act according to principles of good citizenship  Created schools  Wage and price control  Address human rights  Abolished slavery  Encouraged religious tolerance

19  Created by the National Convention  Two-House Legislature ▪ Upper house selected executive branch ▪ 5 individuals called Directors  Eliminated universal manhood suffrage allowing only property owners right to vote  Existed for 4 years

20  Great French war general who seized power in France in 1799 through a coup d'état  Formed a dictatorship  The Consulate- 1 st 5 years of Napoleon’s rule

21  First Consul (head of government)  Created a strong army and navy  Had people vote for new constitution in plebiscite (yes or no vote)

22 1. Napoleonic Code - organized French law 2. Bank of France 3. Public Education 4. Established Concordat- recognized that most French people were Catholic but allowed religious freedoms

23  Napoleon’s supporters wanted his position to be permanent and hereditary  Voted to make France an Empire and Napoleon an Emperor

24  Napoleon conquered and dominated much of Europe  Placed monarchs in countries he conquered  Increased Nationalism (love for one’s country)

25  Napoleon tried to conquer Russia but was defeated with the scorched-earth policy  Other monarchs took advantage of this defeat to gain back territory  Napoleon forced out of France  Returned for a period called “Hundred Days” but failed as ruler again

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