Causes of the French Revolution Concept: Social Classes The Old Regime was a very unequal social class structure First Estate – The Church or Clergy 1% of population, owned 5-10% of land, paid little taxes Second Estate – The Nobles or Lords 2% of population, owned 25% of land, paid little taxes Third Estate – Bourgeoisie or Middle Class, Peasants, Workers and Serfs 97% of pop., owned 40% land, paid high taxes, little representation
Causes of the French Revolution Concept: Absolute Monarchy 1.The King had unlimited control over the affairs of the state. 2.Did not need the people’s approval to pass laws, make wars, or levy taxes. 3.The people had no representation in government
Causes of the French Revolution Concept: Enlightenment Philosophy 1.The old Greco-Roman ideas of law, reason, equality were become popular to the masses 2.People were demanding representation in government 3.People wanted fairer laws, social equality, and protection of their natural rights
ESTATES GENERAL MEETING By 1789, France was in financial debt because of on-going wars with Europe and unchecked spending by the royal family. King Louis XVI called for a meeting of the Estates General, an old system to get public opinion. Each Estate was represented but only allowed one vote per estate. Louis asked the estates to come up with solutions to the debt crisis.
Estates General Meeting Two Major Problems with this meeting 1. the 3 rd Estate (peasants) was always outvoted by the 1 st and 2 nd Estates (Clergy and Nobles), their solutions went unheard. 2. King Louis also held the power to Veto and used it against any solution that threatened to limit his power
The National Assembly The 3 rd Estate was so frustrated with the Estates General Meeting, they decided to meet separately June 20, 1789, the leaders of the 3 rd Estate swore a Tennis Court Oath and –Created the National Assembly-a new legislature to represent the majority of French citizens –Pledged to write a new social contract for France and limit the King’s Power
The Peasant Reaction Word spread across France that the King’s power was being challenged. Two Major Uprisings Happened 1.The Storming of the Bastille - French citizens stormed the old prison in search of gun powder (July 14, 1798) 2.The March on Versailles- Women stormed the Palace of Versailles, home to Louis and Marie Antoinette to demand affordable bread (October, 1789) As a result of these, the King and Queen were forced to leave Versailles and return to Paris, the capital.
A Political Revolution Begins Answer the following questions 1.Why was the social class system a cause of the French Revolution? 2.Why was the Estates General meeting unfair to the majority of French citizens? 3.What did the National Assembly vow to do and how did it help contribute to the French Revolution?
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY 1789-1791 The new government called the National Assembly Declaration of the Rights of Man that guaranteed rights, liberties, and freedoms. They couldn’t solve financial problems because they were involved in wars and had too many political divisions. A Limited Monarchy was created with a Constitution in 1791.
Political Spectrum Divisions RadicalsLiberalsModeratesConservativesReactionary End Monarchy Kill the King King is a figurehead with no power Republic - King as an advisor King limited powersRestore Monarchy Peasants Bourgeoisie Clergy Nobles
REIGN OF TERROR IN THE “REPUBLIC” 1792-1794 Maximilien Robespierre and the other radicals known as the Jacobins, execute Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. The radicals took control of the National Assembly and created a new legislative body called the National Convention.
REIGN OF TERROR IN THE “REPUBLIC” A Committee of Public Safety was created to deal with the threats to France. Forty thousand French people in two years were executed by guillotine. The National Convention turned on their leader and executed Robespierre July 1794. The Reign of Terror ends when a group of moderates write a new constitution and create a five man Directory to run the country.
NAPOLEON 1799-1814 Napoleon overthrows the Directory and rule France as a dictator, and emperor, for 15 years…
Nationalism Napoleon’s reign over other countries in Europe created Nationalism A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country, a celebration of the nation, a strong national identity to defend the nation against foreigners and the leaders encourage loyalty to the nation.
The Congress of Vienna The meeting restored stability and peace after the revolutions and Napoleon's war in Europe The Countries at the meeting included: Austria & Prussia (Germany), Russia, France and Britain
Goals of the Congress of Vienna 1.Create a Balance of Power in Europe Redrew the map of Europe to keep France contained “Containment” Boundaries were redrawn without any consideration for national cultures
Goals of the Congress of Vienna 2.Restore the Monarchs in Europe They wanted to create governments that would be recognized as legal or legitimate “Legitimacy” (Louis XVIII in France) 3. Created a wartime Alliance Austria, Russia, Prussia, Great Britain
French Revolution Ideas Spread to other Countries Fair taxation Middle class having more say in government Getting rid of feudal privileges Equality of all citizens People govern themselves – democracy Inalienable rights Rejection of the divine right Government answers to all the people Freedom of the press Government protects the rights of the people