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Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.5 The human skeleton.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.5 The human skeleton."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.5 The human skeleton.

2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.5 The human skeleton.

3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.10 Bones of the right side of the pectoral girdle and the right arm and hand.

4 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 5.11 Bones of the pelvic girdle and the left leg and foot.

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.24 The pectoral girdle and clavicle. Acromial (lateral) end (b) Right clavicle, superior view Posterior Sternal (medial) end Anterior Acromial end Anterior Posterior Sternal end (c) Right clavicle, inferior view Clavicle Acromio- clavicular joint Scapula (a) Articulated pectoral girdle

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25 The scapula. Acromion Coracoid process Medial border Inferior angle Glenoid cavity Right scapula, anterior aspect (a) Coracoid process Acromion Glenoid cavity at lateral angle Spine (b)Right scapula, posterior aspect Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Acromion Spine (c)Right scapula, lateral aspect

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.26 The humerus of the right arm Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Capitulum Head of humerus Anatomical neck Deltoid tuberosity Coronoid fossa Olecranon fossa Medial epicondyle Trochlea Surgical neck Deltoid tuberosity Greater tubercle Lateral epicondyle (a) Anterior view(b) Posterior view

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.27 Radius and ulna of the right forearm. Radial notch of the ulna Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Styloid process of radius Radius Neck of radius Head of radius Styloid process of ulna Ulna Head Neck Radial tuberosity Radius Styloid process of radius (a) Anterior view(b) Posterior view

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.27d Radius and ulna of the right forearm. (d) Distal ends of the radius and ulna at the wrist Ulnar notch of radius Head of ulna Styloid process Styloid process View

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. (c) Proximal portion of ulna, lateral view Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch View Figure 7.27c Radius and ulna of the right forearm.

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Coronoid fossa Radius Radial tuberosity Head of radius Capitulum Trochlea (c) Anterior view at the elbow region Humerus Medial epicondyle Coronoid process of ulna Ulna Radial notch Figure 7.26c Detailed views of articulation at the elbow.

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Olecranon fossa Ulna Olecranon process Medial epicondyle (d) Posterior view of extended elbow Humerus Lateral epicondyle Head Radius Neck Figure 7.26d The humerus of the right arm and detailed views of articulation at the elbow.

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.28 Bones of the left hand. Phalanges Carpals Radius Proximal Middle Distal Metacarpals Carpals (b) Posterior view of left hand Ulna Carpals (a) Anterior view of left hand Radius

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.29 Articulated pelvis showing the two hip (coxal) bones (which together form the pelvic girdle), the sacrum, and the coccyx. Coxal bone (os coxae or hip bone) llium Sacroiliac joint Pubic bone Ischium Sacrum Acetabulum Pubic symphysis Iliac crest Coccyx Pubic arch Anterior inferior iliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The hip bone, innominate bone or coxal bone is a large, flattened, irregularly shaped bone. It has one of the few ball and socket synovial joints in the body – the so called hip joint. It meets its fellow on the opposite side in the middle line in front, and together they form the sides and anterior wall of the pelvic cavity.pelvic cavity Together with the sacrum and coccyx, it comprises the pelvissacrumcoccyxpelvis From Wikipedia:

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. OS INNOMINATUM The " os innominatum," so named by Galen, is made up of three bones, distinct in childhood, but united in the adult, and termed the "ilium," "ischium," and "pubes." Thus its constituents have received appropriate names, but the bone, consolidated, remains " nameless." Human osteology By Luther Holden 1899

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.30a Bones of the bony pelvis. Ilium Posterior superior iIiac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Ischial spine Ischial tuberosity Ischium Ischial ramus Obturator foramen Acetabulum Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Pubis Inferior ramus of pubis (a) Lateral view, right hip bone

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.30b Bones of the bony pelvis. Body of the ilium (b) Medial view, right hip bone

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4 Comparison of the Male and Female Pelves (3 of 3)

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.31 Bones of the right knee and thigh. Neck Greater trochanter Head Lesser trochanter Linea aspera Lateral condyle Medial condyle Anterior viewPosterior view (b) Femur (thigh bone) Posterior Anterior (a) Patella (kneecap)

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.32a The tibia and fibula of the right leg. Medial condyle Tibial tuberosity Anterior crest Tibia Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus Lateral condyle Fibula Head (a) Anterior view

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.32e The tibia and fibula of the right leg. (e) X ray of Pott’s fracture of the fibula Parts of fractured fibula

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.33 Bones of the right foot. Phalanges Metatarsals Tarsals Talus Calcaneus (a) Superior view Proximal Middle Distal (b) Medial view Talus First metatarsal Calcaneus (c) Lateral view Fifth metatarsal Talus Calcaneus

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Joint = Articulation And Body Movement

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 8.1 Summary of Joint Classes (DON’T NEED TO KNOW ALL DETAILS, BUT KNOW THREE BASIC TYPES OF JOINTS)

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1 Fibrous joints. (DON’T NEED TO KNOW ALL DETAILS) Dense fibrous connective tissue Suture line Root of tooth Socket of alveolar process Periodontal ligament Fibula Tibia Ligament (a) Suture Joint held together with very short, interconnecting fibers, and bone edges interlock. Found only in the skull. (b) Syndesmosis Joint held together by a ligament. Fibrous tissue can vary in length, but is longer than in sutures. (c) Gomphosis “Peg in socket” fibrous joint. Periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket.

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2 Cartilaginous joints. (DON’T NEED TO KNOW ALL DETAILS) Epiphyseal plate (temporary hyaline cartilage joint) Sternum (manubrium) Joint between first rib and sternum (immovable) Fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc Pubic symphysis Body of vertebra Hyaline cartilage (a) Synchondroses Bones united by hyaline cartilage (b) Symphyses Bones united by fibrocartilage

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.3 General structure of a synovial joint. Periosteum Ligament Fibrous capsule Synovial membrane Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Articular (hyaline) cartilage Articular capsule

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7b Types of synovial joints. b Hinge joint (elbow joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7c Types of synovial joints. c Pivot joint (proximal radioulnar joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7d Types of synovial joints. d Condyloid joint (metacarpophalangeal joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7e Types of synovial joints. e Saddle joint (carpometacarpal joint of thumb) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7f Types of synovial joints. f Ball-and-socket joint (shoulder joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.8f The knee joint. Medial femoral condyle Medial meniscus on medial tibial condyle Patella (f) Photograph of an opened knee joint; view similar to (e)

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.4 Bursae ligament Subacromial bursa Cavity in bursa containing synovial fluid Bursa rolls and lessens friction. Humerus head rolls medially as arm abducts. (b)Showing how a bursa eliminates friction where a ligament (or other structure) would rub against a bone Humerus resting Humerus moving Synovial membrane

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.10c The shoulder joint: bursae and tendon sheath Acromion ligament Subacromial bursa ligament Greater tubercle of humerus ligament Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Subscapular bursa Tendon Scapula Coracoid process (c) Anterior view of right shoulder joint capsule

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. A Closer Look 8.1a Joints: From Knights in Shining Armor to Bionic Humans

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. A Closer Look 8.1b: Joints: From Knights in Shining Armor to Bionic Humans

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5d Movements allowed by synovial joints. Extension Flexion (d) Angular movements: flexion and extension at the shoulder and knee

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5e Movements allowed by synovial joints. Abduction Adduction (e) Angular movements: abduction, adduction, and circumduction of the upper limb at the shoulder Circumduction

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5f Movements allowed by synovial joints. Lateral rotation Medial rotation Rotation (f) Rotation of the head, neck, and lower limb

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6a Special body movements. Supination (radius and ulna are parallel) (a) Pronation (P) and supination (S) Pronation (radius rotates over ulna)


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