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The Appendicular Skeleton

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Presentation on theme: "The Appendicular Skeleton"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Appendicular Skeleton
Composed of 126 bones Limbs (appendages) Pectoral girdle Pelvic girdle

2 Figure 5.8a Cranium Skull Facial bones Clavicle Thoracic cage Scapula
(ribs and sternum) Scapula Sternum Rib Humerus Vertebra Vertebral column Radius Ulna Sacrum Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges (a) Anterior view Figure 5.8a

3 Figure 5.8b Cranium Bones of pectoral girdle Clavicle Scapula Upper
limb Rib Humerus Vertebra Radius Bones of pelvic girdle Ulna Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Lower limb Tibia Fibula (b) Posterior view Figure 5.8b

4 The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
Composed of two bones Clavicle—collarbone Articulates with the sternum medially and with the scapula laterally Scapula—shoulder blade Articulates with the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint Articulates with the arm bone at the glenoid cavity These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement

5 Acromio clavicular joint Clavicle Scapula (a) Articulated right shoulder (pectoral) girdle showing the relationship to bones of the thorax and sternum Figure 5.23a

6 Acromial (lateral) end Anterior
Posterior Sternal (medial) end Acromial (lateral) end Anterior Superior view Acromial end Sternal end Anterior Posterior Inferior view (b) Right clavicle, superior and inferior views Figure 5.23b

7 Glenoid cavity at lateral angle
Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Superior angle Acromion Glenoid cavity at lateral angle Spine Medial border Lateral border (c) Right scapula, posterior aspect Figure 5.23c

8 (d) Right scapula, anterior aspect
Acromion Suprascapular notch Superior border Coracoid process Superior angle Glenoid cavity Lateral (axillary) border Medial (vertebral) border Inferior angle (d) Right scapula, anterior aspect Figure 5.23d

9 Bones of the Upper Limbs
Humerus Forms the arm Single bone Proximal end articulation Head articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula Distal end articulation Trochlea and capitulum articulate with the bones of the forearm

10 Head of humerus Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Anatomical neck Intertubercular sulcus Deltoid tuberosity Radial fossa Medial epicondyle Coronoid fossa Capitulum Trochlea (a) Figure 5.24a

11 Head of humerus Anatomical neck Surgical neck Radial groove Deltoid tuberosity Medial epicondyle Olecranon fossa Lateral epicondyle Trochlea (b) Figure 5.24b

12 Bones of the Upper Limbs
The forearm has two bones Ulna—medial bone in anatomical position Proximal end articulation Coronoid process and olecranon articulate with the humerus Radius—lateral bone in anatomical position Head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus

13 Trochlear notch Olecranon Head Coronoid process Neck Proximal radioulnar joint Radial tuberosity Radius Ulna Inter- osseous membrane Ulnar styloid process Radial styloid process Distal radioulnar joint (c) Figure 5.24c

14 Bones of the Upper Limbs
Hand Carpals—wrist Eight bones arranged in two rows of four bones in each hand Metacarpals—palm Five per hand Phalanges—fingers and thumb Fourteen phalanges in each hand In each finger, there are three bones In the thumb, there are only two bones

15 Distal Middle Phalanges (fingers) Proximal 3 2 4 Metacarpals (palm) 5
1 Hamate Trapezium Carpals (wrist) Pisiform Trapezoid Triquetrum Scaphoid Lunate Capitate Ulna Radius Figure 5.25

16 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
Formed by two coxal (ossa coxae) bones Composed of three pairs of fused bones Ilium Ischium Pubis Pelvic girdle = 2 coxal bones, sacrum Bony pelvis = 2 coxal bones, sacrum, coccyx

17 Bones of the Pelvic Girdle
The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis It protects several organs Reproductive organs Urinary bladder Part of the large intestine

18 lliac crest Sacroiliac joint llium Coxal bone (or hip bone) Sacrum Pelvic brim Pubis Coccyx Ischial spine Acetabulum Ischium Pubic symphysis Pubic arch (a) Figure 5.26a

19 Posterior superior iliac spine
IIium Ala IIiac crest Posterior superior iliac spine Anterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Acetabulum Ischial body Body of pubis Ischial spine Pubis Ischial tuberosity Inferior pubic ramus Ischium Obturator foramen Ischial ramus (b) Figure 5.26b

20 Gender Differences of the Pelvis
The female inlet is larger and more circular The female pelvis as a whole is shallower, and the bones are lighter and thinner The female ilia flare more laterally The female sacrum is shorter and less curved The female ischial spines are shorter and farther apart; thus the outlet is larger The female pubic arch is more rounded because the angle of the pubic arch is greater

21 Pubic arch (less than 90°)
False pelvis Inlet of true pelvis Pelvic brim Pubic arch (less than 90°) False pelvis Inlet of true pelvis Pelvic brim Pubic arch (more than 90°) (c) Figure 5.26c

22 Bones of the Lower Limbs
Femur—thigh bone The heaviest, strongest bone in the body Proximal end articulation Head articulates with the acetabulum of the coxal (hip) bone Distal end articulation Lateral and medial condyles articulate with the tibia in the lower leg

23 Neck Head Inter- trochanteric line Lesser trochanter Lateral condyle Patellar surface (a) Figure 5.27a

24 Inter- trochanteric crest
Greater trochanter Head Inter- trochanteric crest Lesser trochanter Gluteal tuberosity Intercondylar fossa Medial condyle Lateral condyle (b) Figure 5.27b

25 Bones of the Lower Limbs
The lower leg has two bones Tibia—Shinbone; larger and medially oriented Proximal end articulation Medial and lateral condyles articulate with the femur to form the knee joint Fibula—Thin and sticklike; lateral to the tibia Has no role in forming the knee joint

26 Intercondylar eminence
Lateral condyle Medial condyle Head Tibial tuberosity Proximal tibiofibular joint Interosseous membrane Anterior border Fibula Tibia Distal tibiofibular joint Medial malleolus Lateral malleolus (c) Figure 5.27c

27 Bones of the Lower Limbs
The foot Tarsals—seven bones Two largest tarsals Calcaneus (heel bone) Talus Metatarsals—five bones form the sole of the foot Phalanges—fourteen bones form the toes

28 Intermediatecuneiform Lateral cuneiform
Phalanges: Distal Middle Proximal Tarsals: Medial cuneiform Metatarsals Tarsals: Intermediatecuneiform Lateral cuneiform Navicular Cuboid Talus Calcaneus Figure 5.28

29 Arches of the Foot Bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong arches Two longitudinal One transverse

30 Medial longitudinal arch
Transverse arch Lateral longitudinal arch Figure 5.29

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