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Articulations and body movements. Types of joints 1.Fibrous joints 1.Sutures 2.Syndesmoses 2.Cartilaginous joints 3.Synovial joints 1.Plane (gliding)

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Presentation on theme: "Articulations and body movements. Types of joints 1.Fibrous joints 1.Sutures 2.Syndesmoses 2.Cartilaginous joints 3.Synovial joints 1.Plane (gliding)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Articulations and body movements

2 Types of joints 1.Fibrous joints 1.Sutures 2.Syndesmoses 2.Cartilaginous joints 3.Synovial joints 1.Plane (gliding) 2.Hinge 3.Pivot 4.Condylooid 5.Saddle 6.Ball and socket

3 1. Fibrous joints Characteristics –Joined by fibrous tissue. –No joint cavity. –Seldom movement. Types –Sutures Interlocked by connective tissues and irregular edges between bones (skull). –Syndesmoses Articulated bones connected by ligaments and bones that do not interlock. (Fibula and Tibia) –Gomphosis: tooth secured by periodontal ligament.

4 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Fibrous joints (a)(b) Dense fibrous connective tissue Suture line Fibula Tibia SutureSyndesmosis Ligament

5 2. Cartilaginous joints Characteristic –Articulating bone ends are connected by a plate of cartilage. –Types Sympheses (growing together): connected by a flat disc of fibrous cartilage (intervertebral joints and pubic syphesis). Synchondroses: Bones are connected by hyaline cartilage (ribs-sternum or epiphyseal plates).

6 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Cartilaginous joints (a) (c) (b) Epiphyseal plate (hyaline cartilage) Synchondroses Sternum (manubrium) Joint between first rib and sternum (immovable) Symphyses Fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc Body of vertebra

7 3. Synovial joints Characteristics –Articulating bones are separated in a cavity containing synovial fluid. –Uniaxial or multiaxial movement. –Joint surfaces are enclosed in a 2 layered articular capsule (connective tissue). –Inner layer: synovial membrane (smooth) –Articular (hyaline) cartilage covers the bone surfaces. –Articular capsule may be reinforced with ligaments containing abursae (fluid filled sacs to reduce friction). –Fibrocartilage may be present in the capsule.

8 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. General structure of a synovial joint (a) (b) Periosteum Ligament Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Fibrous capsule Synovial membrane Articular (hyaline) cartilage Articular capsule

9 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Friction-reducing structures: Bursae and tendon sheaths (a) (b) Acromion of scapula Glenoid cavity containing synovial fluid Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Cavity in bursa containing synovial fluid Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule Humerus Hyaline cartilage Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Fibrous articular capsule Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle

10 Types of synovial joints –Plane –Hinge –Pivot –Condyloid –Saddle –Ball and socket

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13 Movements

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22 Some Synovial joints Knee joint Hip joint Temporomandibular joint Joint disorders –Sprains –Dislocation

23 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Knee joint (a) (b) Femur Tendon of quadriceps femoris Suprapatellar bursa Patella Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa Synovial cavity Lateral meniscus Posterior cruciate ligament Infrapatellar fat pad Deep infrapatellar bursa Patellar ligament Articular capsule Lateral meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament Tibia Fibular collateral ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Medial condyle Tibial collateral ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus Patellar ligament Patella Quadriceps tendon Lateral condyle of femur Lateral meniscus Fibula Tibia

24 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The hip joint (c)(d) Anterior inferior iliac spine Iliofemoral ligament Pubofemoral ligament Greater trochanter Ischium Iliofemoral ligament Ischiofemoral ligament Greater trochanter of femur

25 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The temporomandibular (jaw) joint (a) (b) (c) Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Articular tubercle Infratemporal fossa External acoustic meatus Lateral ligament Articular capsule Neck of mandible Articular capsule Articular cartilage covering the mandibular fossa Articular disc Articular tubercle Superior joint cavity Inferior joint cavity Mandibular condyle Neck of mandible Synovial membranes Laterial excursion

26 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The elbow joint (a) Articular capsule Synovial membrane Synovial cavity Articular cartilage Coronoid process Tendon of biceps muscle Ulna Humerus Fat pad Tendon of triceps muscle Bursa Trochlea Articular cartilage of the trochlear notch

27 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The elbow joint (b) Humerus Lateral epicondyle Articular capsule Radial collateral ligament Olecranon process Anular ligament Radius Ulna

28 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. A common knee injury Lateral Medial Patella (outline) Tibial collateral ligament (torn) Medial meniscus (torn) Anterior cruciate ligament (torn) Hockey puck

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30 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Knee joint (a) Femur Tendon of quadriceps femoris Suprapatellar bursa Patella Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa Synovial cavity Lateral meniscus Posterior cruciate ligament Infrapatellar fat pad Deep infrapatellar bursa Patellar ligament Articular capsule Lateral meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament Tibia

31 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Knee joint (b) Fibular collateral ligament Posterior cruciate ligament Medial condyle Tibial collateral ligament Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus Patellar ligament Patella Quadriceps tendon Lateral condyle of femur Lateral meniscus Fibula Tibia

32 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Knee joint (c) (d) Quadriceps femoris muscle Tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle Patella Lateral patellar retinaculum Medial patellar retinaculum Tibial collateral ligament Tibia Fibular collateral ligament Fibula Patellar ligament Medial femoral condyle Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus on medial tibial condyle

33 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Knee joint (c) Quadriceps femoris muscle Tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle Patella Lateral patellar retinaculum Medial patellar retinaculum Tibial collateral ligament Tibia Fibular collateral ligament Fibula Patellar ligament

34 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. Knee joint (d) Medial femoral condyle Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus on medial tibial condyle

35 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The elbow joint (c) Anular ligament Humerus Medial epicondyle Ulnar (medial) collateral ligament Ulna Articular capsule Radius Coronoid process

36 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The elbow joint (d) Articular capsule Anular ligament Coronoid process Radius Humerus Medial epicondyle Ulnar collateral ligament Ulna

37 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The shoulder joint (a) Acromion Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Coracohumeral ligament Greater tubercle of humerus Transverse humeral ligament Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Articular capsule reinforced by glenohumeral ligaments Subscapular bursa Tendon of the subscapularis muscle Scapula Coracoid process

38 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The shoulder joint (b) Acromion Coracoid process Articular capsule Glenoid cavity Glenoid labrum Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle Glenohumeral ligaments Tendon of the subscapularis muscle Scapula PosteriorAnterior

39 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The shoulder joint (c) Head of humerus Muscle of rotator cuff (cut) Acromion (cut) Glenoid cavity of scapula Capsule of shoulder joint (opened)

40 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The hip joint (a) (b) Articular cartilage Coxal (hip) bone Ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum teres) Synovial cavity Articular capsule Acetabular labrum Femur Acetabular labrum Synovial membrane Ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum teres) Head of femur Articular capsule (cut)

41 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The temporomandibular (jaw) joint (a) (b) (c) Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Articular tubercle Infratemporal fossa External acoustic meatus Lateral ligament Articular capsule Neck of mandible Articular capsule Articular cartilage covering the mandibular fossa Articular disc Articular tubercle Superior joint cavity Inferior joint cavity Mandibular condyle Neck of mandible Synovial membranes Laterial excursion

42 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The temporomandibular (jaw) joint (a) Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Articular tubercle Infratemporal fossa External acoustic meatus Lateral ligament Articular capsule Neck of mandible

43 Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7e by Elaine Marieb & Katja Hoehn Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. The temporomandibular (jaw) joint (b) Articular capsule Articular cartilage covering the mandibular fossa Articular disc Articular tubercle Superior joint cavity Inferior joint cavity Mandibular condyle Neck of mandible Synovial membranes


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