1. Fibrous joints Characteristics –Joined by fibrous tissue. –No joint cavity. –Seldom movement. Types –Sutures Interlocked by connective tissues and irregular edges between bones (skull). –Syndesmoses Articulated bones connected by ligaments and bones that do not interlock. (Fibula and Tibia) –Gomphosis: tooth secured by periodontal ligament.
2. Cartilaginous joints Characteristic –Articulating bone ends are connected by a plate of cartilage. –Types Sympheses (growing together): connected by a flat disc of fibrous cartilage (intervertebral joints and pubic syphesis). Synchondroses: Bones are connected by hyaline cartilage (ribs-sternum or epiphyseal plates).
3. Synovial joints Characteristics –Articulating bones are separated in a cavity containing synovial fluid. –Uniaxial or multiaxial movement. –Joint surfaces are enclosed in a 2 layered articular capsule (connective tissue). –Inner layer: synovial membrane (smooth) –Articular (hyaline) cartilage covers the bone surfaces. –Articular capsule may be reinforced with ligaments containing abursae (fluid filled sacs to reduce friction). –Fibrocartilage may be present in the capsule.