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Appendicular Skeleton

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Presentation on theme: "Appendicular Skeleton"— Presentation transcript:

1 Appendicular Skeleton
The Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limb The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb Nestor T. Hilvano, M.D., M.P.H.

2 Learning Objectives You should be able to:
Identify and describe the features of the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, and bones of the wrist and hand, including their functions. Identify and describe the features of the pelvic girdle, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, and bones of the foot, including their functions. Compare the structural and functional differences between male and female pelvis. Discuss common injuries of the upper and lower limbs as to structures and functions.

3 Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle
Consists of: ___ attaches medially to the sternum. ___ articulates with the humerus. a. scapula b. clavicle Acromioclavicular joint - easily dislocated due to loose attachment

4 Clavicle Commonly called- __________. S-shaped bones
Inferior - marked by muscle and ligament Sternoclavicular joints - only articulations between the pectoral girdle and axial skeleton.

5 Scapula Triangular plate, commonly called ____.
Spine ends as ___ process. ___ process serves for muscle attachment. a. coracoid process c. shoulder blade b. acromion process d. collar bone Subscapular, infraspinous and supraspinous fossa The head of humerus articulates with ___ of scapula. a. glenoid cavity b. supraspinous fossa c. subscapular fossa d. infraspinous fossa

6 Humerus Review/study parts of humerus
Intertubercular groove holds biceps tendon Surgical neck- Importance? Radial groove - path of radial n. Lateral epicondyles- attachment of forearm muscles Condyles consist of: 1. Capitulum articulates with radius. 2. Trochlea articulates with ulna. Olecranon fossa holds olecranon process of ulna.

7 Ulna and Radius Radius (lateral) Ulna (medial)
head articulates with radial notch radial tuberosity for biceps muscle styloid process Ulna (medial) olecranon and trochlear notch radial notch Interosseous membrane – fibrous sheet bony prominences of wrist on medial side, ___, and lateral side, ___. a. styloid process of radius b. styloid process of ulna

8 Carpal Bones Form the _____ bones; 2 rows (4 bones each)
proximal row = Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiform distal row = Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate “Sally Left The Party To Take Charlie Home”

9 Metacarpals and Phalanges
Metacarpals are bones of the ______ base, shaft and head Phalanges are bones of the ___________ thumb or pollex has proximal and distal phalanx fingers have proximal, middle and distal phalanx a. fingers/digits b. palms

10 The Pelvis Pelvis = is a composite structure that consists of os coxae (hip bones), sacrum, and coccyx Pelvic Girdle = made of os coxae (hip bones) Supports trunk on the legs and protects viscera Sacroiliac joint Pubic symphysis

11 Hip Bones (os coxae) Composed of 3 bones: 1. Ilium 2. Pubis 3. Ischium
iliac crest and iliac fossa greater sciatic notch contains __________ which innervates the lower limb. 2. Pubis body, superior and inferior ramus 3. Ischium ___________ bears body weight when seated. ischial spine lesser sciatic notch (passage of b.v., nerves, & small muscle) ischial ramus ___ - is hip joint socket ___ - space enclosed by collagen fibers for attachment of hip muscles. a. obturator foramen b. acetabulum

12 Pelvic Inlet and Outlet
False and True pelvis separated at pelvic brim Pelvic inlet – enclosed space of pelvic brim Pelvic outlet – opening bounded by coccyx, ischial tuberosities, & inferior border of pubic symphysis

13 Comparison of Male and Female
Female pelvis = lighter, broader pubic angle( >100 degrees), enlarged pelvic outlet, pubic inlet wider and round, less curvature on sacrum and coccyx Male pelvis = heavier, pubic angle (<90 degrees), small pelvic outlet, pelvic inlet heart-shaped

14 Femur and Patella Nearly spherical head and constricted neck
ligament to fovea capitis Greater and lesser trochanters for tendon attachment of muscles Posterior ridge called linea aspera attachment of hip muscles Medial and lateral epicondyles and condyles ___ = triangular sesamoid

15 Tibia Thick, weight-bearing (strongest) bone, commonly called ____.
Broad superior head with 2 flat articular surfaces medial and lateral condyles roughened anterior surface palpated below patella = tibial tuberosity distal expansion = medial malleolus

16 Fibula Slender lateral strut
Stabilizes ankle, site for muscle attachment of leg Does not bear any body weight spare bone tissue Head = proximal end Lateral malleolus = distal expansion Joined to tibia by interosseous membrane. Pott fracture – dislocate ankle (outward & backward movement of foot), breaking both the lateral & medial malleolus.

17 Tarsal, Metarsals, & Phalanges Bones
Bones of the _______ T_________ is most superior tarsal bone Transmit weight of the body from the tibia toward the toes. sits upon calcaneus and articulates with navicular. C_________ forms heel Distal row of tarsal bones medial, intermediate and lateral cuneiforms and the cuboid

18 Common Injury

19 Homework (Self- Review)
Identify bone associated with the following. a) bony prominences on medial and lateral sides of wrist b) bony prominences on medial and lateral sides of ankle c) rounded projections on either side of the elbow d) bearing body weight when seated e) fracture of heel f) strongest bone in the body After visual inspection and measurements, what informations could the bones reveal? Identify bone which articulates with the following. a) capitulum of humerus b) glenoid cavity of scapula c) acetabulum of coxal bone d) sternum (medially) 4. How is the female pelvis adapted for childbearing?

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