Presentation on theme: "Appendicular Skeleton"— Presentation transcript:
1 Appendicular Skeleton The Pectoral Girdle and Upper LimbThe Pelvic Girdle and Lower LimbNestor T. Hilvano, M.D., M.P.H.
2 Learning Objectives You should be able to: Identify and describe the features of the clavicle, scapula, humerus, radius, ulna, and bones of the wrist and hand, including their functions.Identify and describe the features of the pelvic girdle, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, and bones of the foot, including their functions.Compare the structural and functional differences between male and female pelvis.Discuss common injuries of the upper and lower limbs as to structures and functions.
3 Pectoral (shoulder) Girdle Consists of:___ attaches medially to the sternum.___ articulates with the humerus.a. scapula b. clavicleAcromioclavicular joint - easily dislocated due to loose attachment
4 Clavicle Commonly called- __________. S-shaped bones Inferior - marked by muscle and ligamentSternoclavicular joints - only articulations between the pectoral girdle and axial skeleton.
5 Scapula Triangular plate, commonly called ____. Spine ends as ___ process.___ process serves formuscle attachment.a. coracoid process c. shoulder bladeb. acromion process d. collar boneSubscapular, infraspinous and supraspinous fossaThe head of humerus articulates with ___ of scapula.a. glenoid cavity b. supraspinous fossac. subscapular fossa d. infraspinous fossa
6 Humerus Review/study parts of humerus Intertubercular groove holds biceps tendonSurgical neck- Importance?Radial groove - path of radial n.Lateral epicondyles- attachment of forearm musclesCondyles consist of:1. Capitulum articulates with radius.2. Trochlea articulates with ulna.Olecranon fossa holds olecranon process of ulna.
7 Ulna and Radius Radius (lateral) Ulna (medial) head articulates with radial notchradial tuberosity for biceps musclestyloid processUlna (medial)olecranon and trochlear notchradial notchInterosseous membrane – fibrous sheetbony prominences of wrist on medial side, ___, and lateral side, ___.a. styloid process of radiusb. styloid process of ulna
8 Carpal Bones Form the _____ bones; 2 rows (4 bones each) proximal row = Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum, Pisiformdistal row = Trapezium, Trapezoid, Capitate, Hamate“Sally Left The Party To Take Charlie Home”
9 Metacarpals and Phalanges Metacarpals are bones of the ______base, shaft and headPhalanges are bones of the ___________thumb or pollex has proximal and distal phalanxfingers have proximal, middle and distal phalanxa. fingers/digitsb. palms
10 The PelvisPelvis = is a composite structure that consists of os coxae (hip bones), sacrum, and coccyxPelvic Girdle = made of os coxae (hip bones)Supports trunk on the legs and protects visceraSacroiliac jointPubic symphysis
11 Hip Bones (os coxae) Composed of 3 bones: 1. Ilium 2. Pubis 3. Ischium iliac crest and iliac fossagreater sciatic notch contains __________ which innervates the lower limb.2. Pubisbody, superior and inferior ramus3. Ischium___________ bears body weight when seated.ischial spinelesser sciatic notch (passage of b.v., nerves, & small muscle)ischial ramus___ - is hip joint socket___ - space enclosed by collagen fibers for attachment of hip muscles.a. obturator foramen b. acetabulum
12 Pelvic Inlet and Outlet False and True pelvis separated at pelvic brimPelvic inlet – enclosed space of pelvic brimPelvic outlet – opening bounded by coccyx, ischial tuberosities, & inferior border of pubic symphysis
13 Comparison of Male and Female Female pelvis = lighter, broader pubic angle( >100 degrees), enlarged pelvic outlet, pubic inlet wider and round, less curvature on sacrum and coccyxMale pelvis = heavier, pubic angle (<90 degrees), small pelvic outlet, pelvic inlet heart-shaped
14 Femur and Patella Nearly spherical head and constricted neck ligament to fovea capitisGreater and lesser trochanters for tendon attachment of musclesPosterior ridge called linea aspera attachment of hip musclesMedial and lateral epicondyles and condyles___ = triangular sesamoid
15 Tibia Thick, weight-bearing (strongest) bone, commonly called ____. Broad superior head with 2 flat articular surfacesmedial and lateral condylesroughened anterior surface palpated below patella = tibial tuberositydistal expansion = medial malleolus
16 Fibula Slender lateral strut Stabilizes ankle, site for muscle attachment of legDoes not bear any body weightspare bone tissueHead = proximal endLateral malleolus = distal expansionJoined to tibia by interosseous membrane.Pott fracture – dislocate ankle (outward & backward movement of foot), breaking both the lateral & medial malleolus.
17 Tarsal, Metarsals, & Phalanges Bones Bones of the _______T_________ is most superior tarsal boneTransmit weight of the body from the tibia toward the toes.sits upon calcaneus and articulates with navicular.C_________ forms heelDistal row of tarsal bonesmedial, intermediate and lateral cuneiforms and the cuboid
19 Homework (Self- Review) Identify bone associated with the following.a) bony prominences on medial and lateral sides of wristb) bony prominences on medial and lateral sides of anklec) rounded projections on either side of the elbowd) bearing body weight when seatede) fracture of heelf) strongest bone in the bodyAfter visual inspection and measurements, what informations could the bones reveal?Identify bone which articulates with the following.a) capitulum of humerusb) glenoid cavity of scapulac) acetabulum of coxal boned) sternum (medially)4. How is the female pelvis adapted for childbearing?