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BIOL 232 - Additional Abbreviated Slides Useful for Exam #2 Please note: These slides have NOTES ATTACHED TO THEM that will help you to know and understand.

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Presentation on theme: "BIOL 232 - Additional Abbreviated Slides Useful for Exam #2 Please note: These slides have NOTES ATTACHED TO THEM that will help you to know and understand."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIOL 232 - Additional Abbreviated Slides Useful for Exam #2 Please note: These slides have NOTES ATTACHED TO THEM that will help you to know and understand specifics in understanding each given topic on the slide shown. The notes are embedded within this PowerPoint file. If you do not know how to access them, look below this slide to the large grey line and move your cursor over this line until you can click on it and move the line upwards. This will reveal the notes for each slide.

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.38 Different growth rates of body parts determine body proportions.

3 Sir John Charnley – doctor who pioneered the use of artificial joints in the early 1960s.

4 Fibrous Joints – joints that are created via fibrous connective tissues that are going to allow virtually no movement.

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1a Fibrous joints. Dense fibrous connective tissue Suture line (a) Suture Joint held together with very short, interconnecting fibers, and bone edges interlock. Found only in the skull.

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1b Fibrous joints. Fibula Tibia Ligament (b) Syndesmosis Joint held together by a ligament. Fibrous tissue can vary in length, but is longer than in sutures.

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1c Fibrous joints. Root of tooth Socket of alveolar process Periodontal ligament (c) Gomphosis “Peg in socket” fibrous joint. Periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket.

8 Braces & Retainers….. Associated With Gomphosis Joints

9 Cartilaginous Joints – joints that are created via cartilage these joints allow a small amount of movement.

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2a Cartilaginous joints. Epiphyseal plate (temporary hyaline cartilage joint) Sternum (manubrium) Joint between first rib and sternum (immovable) (a) Synchondroses Bones united by hyaline cartilage

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2b Cartilaginous joints. Fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc Pubic symphysis Body of vertebra Hyaline cartilage (b) Symphyses Bones united by fibrocartilage

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.3 General structure of a synovial joint. Periosteum Ligament Fibrous capsule Synovial membrane Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Articular (hyaline) cartilage Articular capsule

13 Figure 8.3

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.4 Bursae and tendon sheaths. Acromion of scapula Joint cavity containing synovial fluid Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule Humerus Hyaline cartilage Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Fibrous articular capsule Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle (a) Frontal section through the right shoulder joint Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Cavity in bursa containing synovial fluid Bursa rolls and lessens friction. Humerus head rolls medially as arm abducts. (b) Enlargement of (a), showing how a bursa eliminates friction where a ligament (or other structure) would rub against a bone Humerus resting Humerus moving

15 Figure 8.7a–c

16

17 Figure 8.7d

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.13a The temporomandibular (jaw) joint. Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Articular tubercle Infratemporal fossa External acoustic meatus Articular capsule Ramus of mandible Lateral ligament (a) Location of the joint in the skull

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.13c The temporomandibular (jaw) joint. (c)Lateral excursion: lateral (side-to-side) movements of the mandible Outline of the mandibular fossa Superior view

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.15 X ray of a hand deformed by rheumatoid arthritis.

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.15 Paranasal sinuses. Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells (sinus) Maxillary sinus Sphenoid sinus Frontal sinus Ethmoidal air cells Maxillary sinus Sphenoid sinus (a) Anterior aspect (b) Medial aspect

22

23 Typical Male Typical Female Averages based upon similar weight and height.

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4 Comparison of the Male and Female Pelves (1 of 3)


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