Presentation on theme: "BIOL Additional Abbreviated Slides Useful for Exam #2"— Presentation transcript:
1BIOL 232 - Additional Abbreviated Slides Useful for Exam #2 Please note:These slides have NOTES ATTACHED TO THEM that will help you to know and understand specifics in understanding each given topic on the slide shown.The notes are embedded within this PowerPoint file. If you do not know how to access them, look below this slide to the large grey line and move your cursor over this line until you can click on it and move the line upwards. This will reveal the notes for each slide.Notes are located here.
2Figure 7.38 Different growth rates of body parts determine body proportions. While we did talk about this in lecture already, I have decided to repeat what I was talking about since I think it will help you better understand potential application aspects for these questions:Keep in mind the idea that the skull design of the newborn is such that it will be flexible and pliable during delivery. This would be in part due to the lack of actual teeth-like sutures and the presence of large fontanels. Remember that the fontanels are the soft spots where no rigid bone has yet formed in the skull of newborns.Mainly what we talked about with this slide was the idea of bones undergoing differential growth rates.
3Know this historically relevant figure. Sir John Charnley – doctor who pioneered the use of artificial joints in the early 1960s.
4Fibrous Joints – joints that are created via fibrous connective tissues that are going to allow virtually nomovement.Know this definition.
5Figure 8.1a Fibrous joints. DensefibrousconnectivetissueSutureline(a) SutureJoint held together with very short,interconnecting fibers, and bone edgesinterlock. Found only in the skull.The suture is a fibrous joint that occurs between the flat books of the skull. Though not formed at birth, these teeth like projections quickly grow together to form a “zipper-like” interconnection between the various cranial bones.
6Figure 8.1b Fibrous joints. FibulaTibiaLigament(b) SyndesmosisJoint held together by a ligament.Fibrous tissue can vary in length, butis longer than in sutures.This syndemosis joint is a fibrous joint that occurs in humans between the tibia and fibula. It is a tough, ligamental band that basically holds the two bones together without allowing any movement. Most quadrupeds have this same joint type at the junction of their radius and ulna, but NOT humans (more later).
7Figure 8.1c Fibrous joints. Root oftoothSocket ofalveolarprocessPeriodontalligament(c) Gomphosis“Peg in socket” fibrous joint. Periodontalligament holds tooth in socket.This fibrous joint is a gomphosis joint and occurs between the root of a tooth and the jawline. When people wear braces, the pulling of the braces causes pressure against the jawline, causing remodeling of the bony socket in the jawline. However, the bone tissue in the jawline is relatively weaker for a period of a year or so after getting braces off, that many people need to wear a retainer in order to help hold their teeth in their new position. Some people wear their retainer for many years after having worn braces.
8Braces & Retainers….. Associated With Gomphosis JointsRemember in lecture today that I talked about how retainers can be used to help hold newly placed gomphosal joints in position.
9Cartilaginous Joints – joints that are created via cartilage these joints allow a small amount of movement.Know the definition.
10Figure 8.2a Cartilaginous joints. Epiphysealplate (temporaryhyaline cartilagejoint)Sternum(manubrium)Joint betweenfirst rib andsternum(immovable)(a) SynchondrosesBones united by hyaline cartilageSynchondroses are cartilaginous joints that allow a MINOR/SMALL amount of movement. You can see the examples above. Please note that the epiphyseal plate cartilage IS a form of synchondroses cartilaginous joint. Be sure to recall all the issues related to this cartilaginous joint and the metal cages associated and developed in the Soviet Union in the 1950s.
11Figure 8.2b Cartilaginous joints. FibrocartilaginousintervertebraldiscPubic symphysisBody of vertebraHyaline cartilage(b) SymphysesBones united by fibrocartilageSymphyses joints are cartilaginous joints that are located between the vertebrae and in the pubic symphysis. These joints are all associated with fibrocartilage.
12Figure 8.3 General structure of a synovial joint. PeriosteumLigamentFibrouscapsuleSynovialmembraneJoint cavity(containssynovial fluid)Articular (hyaline)cartilageArticularThis is where we really begin new materials:This is they synovial joint! It is the most moveable joint type seen in the body. Please know the following aspects of the synovial joint:Structurally…. The synovial membrane and the fibrous capsule articulate with each other.The synovial membrane produces synovial fluid… a lubricant inside the joint.The articular capsule (combined fibrous capsule and synovial membrane) is held in position by ligamental tissue which gives it structure and support.Note that on the articulating ends of the bone, there is articular cartilage.The whole purpose of the synovial joint design is to create a joint type that allows more movement! A good analogy to think of when examining the synovial joint is to imagine to be akin to the way a car engine works:The synovial fluid is like automotive oil, bathing the articulating surfaces much like oil bathes across engine components.The articulating surfaces seen in a synovial joint behave much like the piston and engine block in an engine…. The reduction of friction is the key function for the synovial fluid, the cartilage is smooth and coated with the synovial fluid to limit frictional wear and tear.
13The especially complex joint in “b” is between the head of the humerus and the glenoid fossa and acromion of the scapula. In more complex joints, we can sometimes see burase. Bursae are pillows of synovial membrane filled with synovial fluid. They act as cushions in very heavy use/complex joint areas (think of shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee).Figure 8.3
14Figure 8.4 Bursae and tendon sheaths. Acromionof scapulaJoint cavitycontainingsynovial fluidSynovialmembraneFibrouscapsuleHumerusHyalinecartilageCoracoacromialligamentSubacromialbursaarticular capsuleTendonsheathTendon oflong headof bicepsbrachii muscle(a) Frontal section through the right shoulder jointCavity inbursa containingBursa rollsand lessensfriction.Humerus headrolls medially asarm abducts.(b) Enlargement of (a), showing how a bursa eliminates frictionwhere a ligament (or other structure) would rub against a boneHumerus restingHumerus movingIn this diagram of the shoulder, we see bursae. Bursae are small “pillows” of synovial membrane that are filled with synovial fluid. These “pillows” will provide additional cushion to these especially complex joints. Bursitis is a medical condition where one or more of these bursae have become inflamed.
15Plane joint – allows limited two-dimensional movement in a single plane. Example is seen in the carpalsHinge joint – allows rotational two-dimensional movement, again in a single plane. Example is seen in the elbow or in the knee.Pivot joint – allows specialized rotational two-dimensional movement. This allows our radius and ulna to cross when we rotate our wrist and gives us more flexibility in our arms than are typically seen in quadrupeds. Quadrupeds typically have a fibrous syndemosis joint in this position instead of a pivot joint.Figure 8.7a–c
16In the above slide, notice how the PIVOT JOINT between the radius and ulna allows the two bones to rotate over each other (on the left side we see the bones in anatomical position (thumbs upward), and on the right we see the bones crossed in nonanatomical position (the “X” shape would make it difficult to read X-rays of those bones).The key idea though is that because we are bipedal, we can have this crossing sort of design between these two bones (DUE TO THE PIVOT JOINT) because we do not need the RIGID STABILITY of a syndemosis joint like would be seen between these two bones in a QUADRAPED animal. The crossing movement we have gives us more ability to manipulate our environment.
17Condyloid joint – allows limited three-dimensional movement Condyloid joint – allows limited three-dimensional movement. Seen between the metacarpals and phalanges of the fingers and toes.Saddle joint – very specialized three-dimensional movement. Seen between the carpal and metacarpal of the human thumb. Not seen in other mammals. This joint gives us the opposable thumb that allows us to manipulate our environment in such a finer, precise fashion than other mammals. This joint looks like two saddle shapes fitting together.You can think of a saddle shape as two “U” shapes…. One being where the rider sits, and the other being what surrounds the upper body of the horse. Both the thumb’s carpal and metacarpal have this saddle shape to allow the specialized 3-D movement.Ball and socket joint – wide ranging three-dimensional movement. Seen in the shoulder and the hip.Figure 8.7d
18Figure 8.13a The temporomandibular (jaw) joint. Zygomatic processMandibular fossaArticular tubercleInfratemporal fossaExternalacousticmeatusArticularcapsuleRamus ofmandibleLateralligament(a) Location of the joint in the skullNotice the joint formed between the jaw and skull. This is the temporomandibular joint.
19Figure 8.13c The temporomandibular (jaw) joint. Lateral excursion: lateral (side-to-side) movements of themandibleOutline ofthe mandibularfossaSuperior viewTMJ is an acronym for a disorder called temporomandibular joint disorder. Affected individuals have severe jaw and ear pain due to inflammation of this joint. Most cases of TMJ are due to grinding of the teeth while sleeping and/or clenching of the jaw during waking hours. Affected individuals can be helped by using mouth guards (bite splints) to keep the teeth apart and prevent clenching and grinding.
20Figure 8.15 X ray of a hand deformed by rheumatoid arthritis. When synovial joints decay, two types of arthritis often may be the culprit:Osteoarthritis is a form of arthritis that is actual deterioration of the joint due to mechanical wear and tear. This may lead to inflammation and pain.Rheumatoid arthritis is a form of arthritis that is due to an autoimmune response in the body that causes significant pain and inflammation and eventual destruction of the joint.Both types of arthritis often manifest in the same ways… but the key differences are in their original cause. Rheumatoid is autoimmune, and Osteoarthritis is bone-against-bone joint breakdown.
21Figure 7.15 Paranasal sinuses. FrontalsinusFrontalsinusEthmoidalair cells(sinus)Ethmoidalair cellsSphenoidsinusSphenoidsinusMaxillarysinusMaxillarysinusThe above show sinuses in the facial and cranial bones. These cavities are membrane lined and supplement the nasal membrane with additional mucous and moisture. This is helpful in harsher environments (if it is very dry or very cold or very both).When a person has a sinus headache…. There has been some sort of inflammation in the small connections between a sinus and the nasal cavity. The small connection is blocked due to the inflammation leading to pressure build up (from the mucous membrane secretions) which can give the headachy feel. Anti-histamine medications work by reducing inflammation…. Opening up the connections allowing the built up fluid to leave, and eliminating pain.(a) Anterior aspect(b) Medial aspect
22See the comparison of the design of the male and female pelvic girdle.
23Averages based upon similar weight and height Typical MaleTypical FemaleAverages based upon similar weight and height.Again, see the differences. Of special note, notice how the pelvic inlet (the hole) is bigger in females… this is helpful in childbirth as the baby must pass through that hole during childbirth.
24Table 7.4 Comparison of the Male and Female Pelves (1 of 3) Notice these difference in the female and male pelvis:Pelvic inlet is larger in females than males.Bones of the female are thinnner than in males.The pelvic inlet is more horizontal in the female than in the male to allow easier childbirth.The horizontal position of the female pelvic inlet means the female’s acetabulum (where the femur articulates with the coxal bone group) will be slightly forward of the position of the vertebral column. This leads females to have a gait that is more “cantilevered” meaning there is more motion and more wear in the joints in the pelvic region of the female compared to the male.The above four differences all contribute to the female’s greater risk of developing osteoporosis later in life. This is in addition to the other reasons discussed in lecture (hormone levels, poor calcium diet, etc.)