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Chapter 8: Joints & Their Function. Sir John Charnley – doctor who pioneered the use of artificial joints in the early 1960s.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8: Joints & Their Function. Sir John Charnley – doctor who pioneered the use of artificial joints in the early 1960s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8: Joints & Their Function

2 Sir John Charnley – doctor who pioneered the use of artificial joints in the early 1960s.

3 Fibrous Joints – joints that are created via fibrous connective tissues that are going to allow virtually no movement.

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1a Fibrous joints. Dense fibrous connective tissue Suture line (a) Suture Joint held together with very short, interconnecting fibers, and bone edges interlock. Found only in the skull.

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1b Fibrous joints. Fibula Tibia Ligament (b) Syndesmosis Joint held together by a ligament. Fibrous tissue can vary in length, but is longer than in sutures.

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.1c Fibrous joints. Root of tooth Socket of alveolar process Periodontal ligament (c) Gomphosis “Peg in socket” fibrous joint. Periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket.

7 Cartilaginous Joints – joints that are created via cartilage these joints allow a small amount of movement.

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2a Cartilaginous joints. Epiphyseal plate (temporary hyaline cartilage joint) Sternum (manubrium) Joint between first rib and sternum (immovable) (a) Synchondroses Bones united by hyaline cartilage

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.2b Cartilaginous joints. Fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc Pubic symphysis Body of vertebra Hyaline cartilage (b) Symphyses Bones united by fibrocartilage

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.3 General structure of a synovial joint. Periosteum Ligament Fibrous capsule Synovial membrane Joint cavity (contains synovial fluid) Articular (hyaline) cartilage Articular capsule

11 Figure 8.3

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.4 Bursae and tendon sheaths. Acromion of scapula Joint cavity containing synovial fluid Synovial membrane Fibrous capsule Humerus Hyaline cartilage Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Fibrous articular capsule Tendon sheath Tendon of long head of biceps brachii muscle (a) Frontal section through the right shoulder joint Coracoacromial ligament Subacromial bursa Cavity in bursa containing synovial fluid Bursa rolls and lessens friction. Humerus head rolls medially as arm abducts. (b) Enlargement of (a), showing how a bursa eliminates friction where a ligament (or other structure) would rub against a bone Humerus resting Humerus moving

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5a Movements allowed by synovial joints. Gliding (a) Gliding movements at the wrist

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5b Movements allowed by synovial joints. (b) Angular movements: flexion, extension, and hyperextension of the neck HyperextensionExtension Flexion

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.5e Movements allowed by synovial joints. Abduction Adduction (e) Angular movements: abduction, adduction, and circumduction of the upper limb at the shoulder Circumduction

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.6b Special body movements. Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion (b) Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion

17 Figure 8.7a–c

18 Figure 8.7d

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7a Types of synovial joints. a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial a Plane joint (intercarpal joint)

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7b Types of synovial joints. b Hinge joint (elbow joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7c Types of synovial joints. c Pivot joint (proximal radioulnar joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7d Types of synovial joints. d Condyloid joint (metacarpophalangeal joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7e Types of synovial joints. e Saddle joint (carpometacarpal joint of thumb) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.7f Types of synovial joints. f Ball-and-socket joint (shoulder joint) a b c d e f Nonaxial Uniaxial Biaxial Multiaxial

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. (a) Sagittal section through the right knee joint Femur Tendon of quadriceps femoris Suprapatellar bursa Patella Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa Synovial cavity Lateral meniscus Posterior cruciate ligament Infrapatellar fat pad Deep infrapatellar bursa Patellar ligament Articular capsule Lateral meniscus Anterior cruciate ligament Tibia Figure 8.8a The knee joint.

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.9 A common knee injury. LateralMedial Patella (outline) Tibial collateral ligament (torn) Medial meniscus (torn) Anterior cruciate ligament (torn) Hockey puck

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.13a The temporomandibular (jaw) joint. Zygomatic process Mandibular fossa Articular tubercle Infratemporal fossa External acoustic meatus Articular capsule Ramus of mandible Lateral ligament (a) Location of the joint in the skull

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.13b The temporomandibular (jaw) joint. Articular capsule Mandibular fossa Articular disc Articular tubercle Superior joint cavity Inferior joint cavity Mandibular condyle Ramus of mandible Synovial membranes (b) Enlargement of a sagittal section through the joint

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.13c The temporomandibular (jaw) joint. (c)Lateral excursion: lateral (side-to-side) movements of the mandible Outline of the mandibular fossa Superior view

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 8.15 X ray of a hand deformed by rheumatoid arthritis.

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. A Closer Look 8.1a Joints: From Knights in Shining Armor to Bionic Humans

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. A Closer Look 8.1b: Joints: From Knights in Shining Armor to Bionic Humans


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