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12-3-07 Obj: To summarize Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty of Versailles FOCUS: W.S. and discuss.

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Presentation on theme: "12-3-07 Obj: To summarize Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty of Versailles FOCUS: W.S. and discuss."— Presentation transcript:

1 Obj: To summarize Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty of Versailles FOCUS: W.S. and discuss.

2 Wilson Fights for Peace Chapter 19 Section 4

3 Terms and Names Fourteen Points League of Nations Treaty of Versailles reparations war – guilt clause Henry Cabot Lodge

4 Wilson’s Fourteen Points Wilson’s plan for world peace Wilson’s plan for world peace January 18, 1918 January 18, 1918 Points 1 – 5 addressed the “causes of the war” Points 1 – 5 addressed the “causes of the war” The conference did not include the Central Powers, Russia, or smaller Allied nations The conference did not include the Central Powers, Russia, or smaller Allied nations

5 Points No more secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas for all 3. Tariffs should be lowered to encourage free trade 4. Weapons should be reduced to lessen militaristic impulses 5. Consider colonial people as well as the interests of imperialism

6 Fourteen Points continued... Points 8 – 13 Dealt with boundary changes National groups could decide for themselves what nation they would belong to

7 Fourteen Points continued... Point 14 League of Nations A forum to discuss grievances without having to go to war

8 Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan France had two German invasions already France had two German invasions already Great Britain just instituted “Make Germany Pay” Great Britain just instituted “Make Germany Pay” Italy wanted control of Austrian territory Italy wanted control of Austrian territory

9 The Big Four – the United States, France, Britain, and Italy worked out the details themselves The Big Four – the United States, France, Britain, and Italy worked out the details themselves The Result The Result Wilson gave up on most of his Fourteen PointsWilson gave up on most of his Fourteen Points Establishment of the League of NationsEstablishment of the League of Nations

10 The Treaty of Versailles When: June 28, 1919 Where: The Great Hall of the Palace at Versailles Who: The Big Four The Defeated Nations Why: To sign the treaty

11 Finally, your turn… Create a chart of the pros and cons of the U.S. joining the League of Nations. Would you have been an advocate for joining? Why or why not? Create a chart of the pros and cons of the U.S. joining the League of Nations. Would you have been an advocate for joining? Why or why not?

12 Obj: To understand the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles and their effects Focus: Discuss what the 14 points speech was intending to do? Describe what each set of points did and explain? For example, the first 5 points did what? Which do you think was the most important and why? Focus: Discuss what the 14 points speech was intending to do? Describe what each set of points did and explain? For example, the first 5 points did what? Which do you think was the most important and why?

13 The Treaty of Versailles Established 9 new nations including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia Established 9 new nations including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia France and Great Britain were given 4 areas of the Ottoman Empire as mandates France and Great Britain were given 4 areas of the Ottoman Empire as mandates Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and PalestineIraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine

14 Germany & the Treaty 1. Demilitarized Lost most of its air force and navy Army reduced to 100,000 men 2. Return land to the French

15 Germany & the Treaty cont. 3.Pay $33 billion in reparations (damages) 4.Had to acknowledge that they were responsible for the war (war – guilt clause)

16 Weaknesses of the Treaty Humiliated Germany Humiliated Germany The European nations were equally guiltyThe European nations were equally guilty Ignored the Bolsheviks in Russia Ignored the Bolsheviks in Russia They suffered more casualties than any other nationThey suffered more casualties than any other nation Lost more territory in the conference than Germany did(S.U. after ’22 and determined to gain back territory lost!!! Leads to…Lost more territory in the conference than Germany did(S.U. after ’22 and determined to gain back territory lost!!! Leads to…

17 Weaknesses cont.... Germany couldn’t pay the reparations bill & the treaty ignored the claims of colonized people Germany couldn’t pay the reparations bill & the treaty ignored the claims of colonized people Wilson refused to hear the appeals of a Vietnamese man (Ho Chi Min) who later fought with France and America until his death(…should've listened!)Wilson refused to hear the appeals of a Vietnamese man (Ho Chi Min) who later fought with France and America until his death(…should've listened!)

18 Opposition to the Treaty Some Americans opposed the treaty Believed it was too harsh Believed it was too harsh A sellout to imperialism A sellout to imperialism New boundaries didn’t satisfy their demands for self - determination New boundaries didn’t satisfy their demands for self - determination

19 Debate over the League of Nations Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggressionSuspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression Wilson was concerned that the Senate may not approve the peace treaty Wilson was concerned that the Senate may not approve the peace treaty Appealed to the American people instead of the Senate Appealed to the American people instead of the Senate

20 Wilson traveled 8,000 miles and delivered 35 speeches in 22 days to appeal to the American people Wilson traveled 8,000 miles and delivered 35 speeches in 22 days to appeal to the American people October 2, 1919 Wilson’s fragile health and demanding schedule caused him to have a stroke and was partially paralyzed for 2 months October 2, 1919 Wilson’s fragile health and demanding schedule caused him to have a stroke and was partially paralyzed for 2 months

21 Voting on the Treaty November 1919 Senator Lodge introduced amendments to the treaty when it came up for a vote Senator Lodge introduced amendments to the treaty when it came up for a vote Senate rejected the amendments but also did NOT ratify the treaty Senate rejected the amendments but also did NOT ratify the treaty March 1920 Senate rejected the amendments and still did NOT ratify the treaty Senate rejected the amendments and still did NOT ratify the treaty

22 Finally... United States signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921 United States signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921 United States never joined the League of Nations United States never joined the League of Nations United States was an “unofficial observer” at League meetings United States was an “unofficial observer” at League meetings

23 The Aftermath of War(Pershing) Many Germans were shocked by the armistice and angry at the Treaty Many Germans were shocked by the armistice and angry at the Treaty Germany was in an economic depression Germany was in an economic depression Millions of workers lost their jobsMillions of workers lost their jobs German currency was nearly uselessGerman currency was nearly useless

24 The Aftermath of War cont... Austrian corporal, Adolf Hitler, blamed German problems on Jews and socialists in the Weimar republic Austrian corporal, Adolf Hitler, blamed German problems on Jews and socialists in the Weimar republic Hitler and his Nazi party won control of the German government Hitler and his Nazi party won control of the German government

25 The Aftermath of War, cont... This militaristic policy led directly to the Second World War This militaristic policy led directly to the Second World War Most Americans just wanted to “return to normalcy” Most Americans just wanted to “return to normalcy”

26 And Finally…Create a chart listing the provisions and results of the Treaty of Versailles ProvisionResult 1. New Nations


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