3 Terms and Names Fourteen Points League of Nations Treaty of Versailles reparationswar – guilt clauseHenry Cabot Lodge
4 Wilson’s Fourteen Points Wilson’s plan for world peaceJanuary 18, 1918Points 1 – 5 addressed the “causes of the war”The conference did not include the Central Powers, Russia, or smaller Allied nations
5 Points 1 - 5 No more secret treaties Freedom of the seas for all Tariffs should be lowered to encourage free tradeWeapons should be reduced to lessen militaristic impulsesConsider colonial people as well as the interests of imperialism
6 Fourteen Points continued . . . Dealt with boundary changesNational groups could decide for themselves what nation they would belong to
7 Fourteen Points continued . . . League of NationsA forum to discuss grievances without having to go to war
8 Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan France had two German invasions alreadyGreat Britain just instituted “Make Germany Pay”Italy wanted control of Austrian territory
9 The Big Four – the United States, France, Britain, and Italy worked out the details themselves The ResultWilson gave up on most of his Fourteen PointsEstablishment of the League of Nations
10 The Treaty of Versailles When: June 28, 1919Where: The Great Hall of the Palace at VersaillesWho: The Big FourThe Defeated NationsWhy: To sign the treaty
11 Finally, your turn…Create a chart of the pros and cons of the U.S. joining the League of Nations. Would you have been an advocate for joining? Why or why not?
12 12-4-07 Obj: To understand the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles and their effects Focus: Discuss what the 14 points speech was intending to do? Describe what each set of points did and explain? For example, the first 5 points did what? Which do you think was the most important and why?
13 The Treaty of Versailles Established 9 new nations including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and YugoslaviaFrance and Great Britain were given 4 areas of the Ottoman Empire as mandatesIraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine
14 Germany & the Treaty Demilitarized Return land to the French Lost most of its air force and navyArmy reduced to 100,000 menReturn land to the French
15 Germany & the Treaty cont. 3. Pay $33 billion in reparations (damages)4. Had to acknowledge that they were responsible for the war (war – guilt clause)
16 Weaknesses of the Treaty Humiliated GermanyThe European nations were equally guiltyIgnored the Bolsheviks in RussiaThey suffered more casualties than any other nationLost more territory in the conference than Germany did(S.U. after ’22 and determined to gain back territory lost!!! Leads to…
17 Weaknesses contGermany couldn’t pay the reparations bill & the treaty ignored the claims of colonized peopleWilson refused to hear the appeals of a Vietnamese man (Ho Chi Min) who later fought with France and America until his death(…should've listened!)
18 Opposition to the Treaty Some Americans opposed the treatyBelieved it was too harshA sellout to imperialismNew boundaries didn’t satisfy their demands for self -determination
19 Debate over the League of Nations Senator Henry Cabot LodgeSuspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggressionWilson was concerned that the Senate may not approve the peace treatyAppealed to the American people instead of the Senate
20 Wilson traveled 8,000 miles and delivered 35 speeches in 22 days to appeal to the American people October 2, 1919 Wilson’s fragile health and demanding schedule caused him to have a stroke and was partially paralyzed for 2 months
21 Voting on the Treaty November 1919 Senator Lodge introduced amendments to the treaty when it came up for a voteSenate rejected the amendments but also did NOT ratify the treatyMarch 1920Senate rejected the amendments and still did NOT ratify the treaty
22 Finally . . .United States signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921United States never joined the League of NationsUnited States was an “unofficial observer” at League meetings
23 The Aftermath of War(Pershing) Many Germans were shocked by the armistice and angry at the TreatyGermany was in an economic depressionMillions of workers lost their jobsGerman currency was nearly useless
24 The Aftermath of War cont. . . Austrian corporal, Adolf Hitler, blamed German problems on Jews and socialists in the Weimar republicHitler and his Nazi party won control of the German government
25 The Aftermath of War, cont . . . This militaristic policy led directly to the Second World WarMost Americans just wanted to “return to normalcy”
26 And Finally…Create a chart listing the provisions and results of the Treaty of Versailles 1. New Nations2.3.4.
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