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Obj: To summarize Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty of Versailles

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Presentation on theme: "Obj: To summarize Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty of Versailles"— Presentation transcript:

1 12-3-07 Obj: To summarize Wilson’s 14 points and the Treaty of Versailles
FOCUS: W.S. and discuss.

2 Wilson Fights for Peace
Chapter 19 Section 4

3 Terms and Names Fourteen Points League of Nations Treaty of Versailles
reparations war – guilt clause Henry Cabot Lodge

4 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Wilson’s plan for world peace January 18, 1918 Points 1 – 5 addressed the “causes of the war” The conference did not include the Central Powers, Russia, or smaller Allied nations

5 Points 1 - 5 No more secret treaties Freedom of the seas for all
Tariffs should be lowered to encourage free trade Weapons should be reduced to lessen militaristic impulses Consider colonial people as well as the interests of imperialism

6 Fourteen Points continued . . .
Dealt with boundary changes National groups could decide for themselves what nation they would belong to

7 Fourteen Points continued . . .
League of Nations A forum to discuss grievances without having to go to war

8 Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan
France had two German invasions already Great Britain just instituted “Make Germany Pay” Italy wanted control of Austrian territory

9 The Big Four – the United States, France, Britain, and Italy worked out the details themselves
The Result Wilson gave up on most of his Fourteen Points Establishment of the League of Nations

10 The Treaty of Versailles
When: June 28, 1919 Where: The Great Hall of the Palace at Versailles Who: The Big Four The Defeated Nations Why: To sign the treaty

11 Finally, your turn… Create a chart of the pros and cons of the U.S. joining the League of Nations. Would you have been an advocate for joining? Why or why not?

12 12-4-07 Obj: To understand the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles and their effects
Focus: Discuss what the 14 points speech was intending to do? Describe what each set of points did and explain? For example, the first 5 points did what? Which do you think was the most important and why?

13 The Treaty of Versailles
Established 9 new nations including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia France and Great Britain were given 4 areas of the Ottoman Empire as mandates Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine

14 Germany & the Treaty Demilitarized Return land to the French
Lost most of its air force and navy Army reduced to 100,000 men Return land to the French

15 Germany & the Treaty cont.
3. Pay $33 billion in reparations (damages) 4. Had to acknowledge that they were responsible for the war (war – guilt clause)

16 Weaknesses of the Treaty
Humiliated Germany The European nations were equally guilty Ignored the Bolsheviks in Russia They suffered more casualties than any other nation Lost more territory in the conference than Germany did(S.U. after ’22 and determined to gain back territory lost!!! Leads to…

17 Weaknesses cont Germany couldn’t pay the reparations bill & the treaty ignored the claims of colonized people Wilson refused to hear the appeals of a Vietnamese man (Ho Chi Min) who later fought with France and America until his death(…should've listened!)

18 Opposition to the Treaty
Some Americans opposed the treaty Believed it was too harsh A sellout to imperialism New boundaries didn’t satisfy their demands for self -determination

19 Debate over the League of Nations
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression Wilson was concerned that the Senate may not approve the peace treaty Appealed to the American people instead of the Senate

20 Wilson traveled 8,000 miles and delivered 35 speeches in 22 days to appeal to the American people
October 2, 1919 Wilson’s fragile health and demanding schedule caused him to have a stroke and was partially paralyzed for 2 months

21 Voting on the Treaty November 1919
Senator Lodge introduced amendments to the treaty when it came up for a vote Senate rejected the amendments but also did NOT ratify the treaty March 1920 Senate rejected the amendments and still did NOT ratify the treaty

22 Finally . . . United States signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921 United States never joined the League of Nations United States was an “unofficial observer” at League meetings

23 The Aftermath of War(Pershing)
Many Germans were shocked by the armistice and angry at the Treaty Germany was in an economic depression Millions of workers lost their jobs German currency was nearly useless

24 The Aftermath of War cont. . .
Austrian corporal, Adolf Hitler, blamed German problems on Jews and socialists in the Weimar republic Hitler and his Nazi party won control of the German government

25 The Aftermath of War, cont . . .
This militaristic policy led directly to the Second World War Most Americans just wanted to “return to normalcy”

26 And Finally…Create a chart listing the provisions and results of the Treaty of Versailles
1. New Nations 2. 3. 4.

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