Presentation on theme: "The Treaty of Versailles & Debate Over the League of Nations."— Presentation transcript:
The Treaty of Versailles & Debate Over the League of Nations
■ Essential Question ■ Essential Question: – What were the major provisions of Wilson ’ s 14 Points & the Treaty of Versailles?
The End of World War I ■The world was transformed by WWI: –22 million soldiers & civilians had died; 20 million were wounded; 10 million became refugees –Towns & farms along the Western & Eastern Fronts were destroyed –The war cost an estimated $338 billion & massive funds were needed to rebuild Europe
22 million dead
20 million wounded
WWI Deaths (Not Including Wounded or POW)
Devastation in Europe Due to WWI Before the War: Village of EsnesAfter the War: Village of Esnes
Devastation in Europe Due to WWI Before the War: Hotel de la Princerie, VerdunAfter the War: Hotel de la Princerie, Verdun
Wilson’s Fourteen Points ■President Woodrow Wilson believed that America ought to take a lead in shaping the peace process ■Near the end of the war, President Wilson developed his peace plan known as the Fourteen Points: –Based on eliminating the reasons for WWI (militarism, imperialism) –Hoped to avoid all future wars by creating an international forum to discuss & arbitrate problems
PAIRS Activity: Examining Wilson’s Fourteen Points In pairs, examine Wilson’s Fourteen Points: – Using the chart in your notes, write in your own words what each section of Wilson’s peace plan means. – Develop an image or symbol that captures the main idea for each section of the plan. – Do not write anything in the column titled: “ Was this point part of the Treaty of Versailles? ” (We will do this a bit later!) – Be prepared for a quick class discussion.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points ■ President Wilson ’ s Fourteen Points contained three main themes: ■ (Points 1-5) Create new rules that would eliminate the causes of WWI – No more secret treaties – Reduction of militaries – Freedom of the seas – International control over colonies to end imperialism
Wilson’s Fourteen Points ■ (Points 6-13) Divide weak empires like Austria- Hungary & the Ottoman Empire into new nations based on national “ self-determination ” – New nations should have their borders drawn with consideration to ethnic & national identities – New nations should be free to choose their own governments
Wilson’s Fourteen Points ■ (Point 14) To create a League of Nations to settle all future international problems by compromise rather than by war
The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 ■Wilson traveled to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 to help create the Treaty of Versailles: –He hoped his Fourteen Points would become the framework for the peace treaty –But, Wilson quickly learned that European leaders did not share his vision for a “peace without victory” & wanted Germany to be punished
British Prime Minister David Lloyd George Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando French Premier George Clemenceau U.S. President Woodrow Wilson “ The Big Four ”
During the peace process, Wilson had to compromise some of his Fourteen Points
The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 League of Nations ■ Delegates agreed to create a League of Nations that included: – An agreement that member nations would work together to stop future acts of aggression
The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 ■Other treaty provisions included: –Austria-Hungary was split in two, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, & Poland were formed –Germany had to accept the “war guilt clause,” pay $33 billion in reparations, & lost all colonies –No mention of free trade; No end to imperialism, no reduction in militaries for any of the Allies
Europe & Middle East Before & After World War I Central Europe was redrawn to reduce the power of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Land was taken from Germany & given to Poland; Germany ’ s border with France was demilitarized to avoid a future invasion New nations were created from territory taken from Russia (who left WWI early after the Bolshevik Revolution) The Ottoman Empire was divided; Britain & France gained mandates in the Middle East
The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 On June 28, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was signed by Germany & officially ended WWI But, many U.S. Senators did not like the treaty because of the League of Nations But, President Wilson could not sign the treaty because Article I of the Constitution gives the Senate the power to ratify all treaties
Points 1-5: New International Rules? Points 6-13: Divided Empires, New Nations, Self-Determination? Point 14: A League of Nations?
■ Essential Question ■ Essential Question: – Why did the USA refuse to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations? ■ Warm-Up Question: – What were the major themes of Wilson ’ s Fourteen Points? – Why don ’ t you think more of his Fourteen Points made it into the Treaty of Versailles?
The Treaty of Versailles, 1919 ■All the major European powers signed the Treaty of Versailles & joined the League ■But, the Senate was divided about what joining the League would mean for the future of the United States
Rejection in the Senate ■Many members of the Senate attacked the League of Nations: –Wilson did not want to weaken the League of Nations & refused to compromise with the Senate –Wilson toured the U.S. to gain public support for the treaty, but had a stroke during the tour ■In 1920, the Senate voted against the treaty & U.S. membership in the League of Nations
The U.S. never joined the League & signed its own peace treaty with Germany in 1921 Members of the League of Nations (in black)
Conclusions ■The impact of the Great War: –The U.S. began the 20 th century as an imperial power & reluctantly entered WWI to protect free trade –Involvement in WWI led to changes for women & African-Americans, an economic boom, & the restriction of liberties The U.S. played a major role in the peace process, but refusal to join the League weakened the ability of world leaders to stop World War II