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The Treaty of Versailles &

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1 The Treaty of Versailles &
Debate Over the League of Nations

2 Essential Question: What were the major provisions of Wilson’s 14 Points & the Treaty of Versailles?

3 The End of World War I The world was transformed by WWI:
22 million soldiers & civilians had died; 20 million were wounded; 10 million became refugees Towns & farms along the Western & Eastern Fronts were destroyed The war cost an estimated $338 billion & massive funds were needed to rebuild Europe

4 22 million dead

5 20 million wounded

6 WWI Deaths (Not Including Wounded or POW)

7 Devastation in Europe Due to WWI
After the War: Village of Esnes Before the War: Village of Esnes

8 Devastation in Europe Due to WWI
After the War: Hotel de la Princerie, Verdun Before the War: Hotel de la Princerie, Verdun

9 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
President Woodrow Wilson believed that America ought to take a lead in shaping the peace process Near the end of the war, President Wilson developed his peace plan known as the Fourteen Points: Based on eliminating the reasons for WWI (militarism, imperialism) Hoped to avoid all future wars by creating an international forum to discuss & arbitrate problems

10 PAIRS Activity: Examining Wilson’s Fourteen Points
In pairs, examine Wilson’s Fourteen Points: Using the chart in your notes, write in your own words what each section of Wilson’s peace plan means. Develop an image or symbol that captures the main idea for each section of the plan. Do not write anything in the column titled: “Was this point part of the Treaty of Versailles?” (We will do this a bit later!) Be prepared for a quick class discussion.

11 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
President Wilson’s Fourteen Points contained three main themes: (Points 1-5) Create new rules that would eliminate the causes of WWI No more secret treaties Reduction of militaries Freedom of the seas International control over colonies to end imperialism First, Wilson said that nations should not make secret treaties. He believed that all agreements between nations should be made public. • Second, peace would be more likely if world powers reduced their militaries and arms. With smaller armies, nations would be less likely to declare war. • Third, there should be freedom of the seas. No nation had the right to interfere with the shipping or trade of another nation. Wilson regretted that Germany’s attacks on the American ships had contributed to the entry of the United States into World War I. • Fourth, nations should remove or lower tariffs. A tariff is a tax on goods that one country or nation ships to another. Tariffs make it difficult for a nation to sell their goods to the people of another nation. • Fifth, there would be international control over colonies in an effort to eliminate imperialism. The fight for colonies had been a major point of conflict between the nations involved in World War I.

12 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
(Points 6-13) Divide weak empires like Austria-Hungary & the Ottoman Empire into new nations based on national “self-determination” New nations should have their borders drawn with consideration to ethnic & national identities New nations should be free to choose their own governments

13 Wilson’s Fourteen Points
(Point 14) To create a League of Nations to settle all future international problems by compromise rather than by war One of Wilson’s most original and important ideas was to form an association of nations. He wanted the nations of the world to form a world congress. Problems between countries could then be taken to this congress. There they would be worked out by compromise, or agreement, and not by war.

14 The Treaty of Versailles, 1919
Wilson traveled to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 to help create the Treaty of Versailles: He hoped his Fourteen Points would become the framework for the peace treaty But, Wilson quickly learned that European leaders did not share his vision for a “peace without victory” & wanted Germany to be punished

15 “The Big Four” French Premier George Clemenceau
British Prime Minister David Lloyd George WILSON AT VERSAILLES, Prime Minister David Lloyd George, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Premier Georges Clemenceau and President Woodrow Wilson at the Versailles Palace during the Treaty Negotiations in 1919. “The Big Four” Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando U.S. President Woodrow Wilson

16 During the peace process, Wilson had to compromise some of his Fourteen Points

17 The Treaty of Versailles, 1919
Delegates agreed to create a League of Nations that included: An agreement that member nations would work together to stop future acts of aggression

18 The Treaty of Versailles, 1919
Other treaty provisions included: Austria-Hungary was split in two, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, & Poland were formed Germany had to accept the “war guilt clause,” pay $33 billion in reparations, & lost all colonies No mention of free trade; No end to imperialism, no reduction in militaries for any of the Allies

19 Europe & Middle East Before & After World War I
Land was taken from Germany & given to Poland; Germany’s border with France was demilitarized to avoid a future invasion The Ottoman Empire was divided; Britain & France gained mandates in the Middle East Central Europe was redrawn to reduce the power of the Austro-Hungarian Empire New nations were created from territory taken from Russia (who left WWI early after the Bolshevik Revolution) Europe & Middle East Before & After World War I

20 The Treaty of Versailles, 1919
But, President Wilson could not sign the treaty because Article I of the Constitution gives the Senate the power to ratify all treaties On June 28, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was signed by Germany & officially ended WWI But, many U.S. Senators did not like the treaty because of the League of Nations

21 New International Rules?
Points 1-5: New International Rules? Points 6-13: Divided Empires, New Nations, Self-Determination? Point 14: A League of Nations?


23 Essential Question: Why did the USA refuse to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations? Warm-Up Question: What were the major themes of Wilson’s Fourteen Points? Why don’t you think more of his Fourteen Points made it into the Treaty of Versailles?

24 The Treaty of Versailles, 1919
All the major European powers signed the Treaty of Versailles & joined the League But, the Senate was divided about what joining the League would mean for the future of the United States

25 Rejection in the Senate
Many members of the Senate attacked the League of Nations: Wilson did not want to weaken the League of Nations & refused to compromise with the Senate Wilson toured the U.S. to gain public support for the treaty, but had a stroke during the tour In 1920, the Senate voted against the treaty & U.S. membership in the League of Nations

26 Members of the League of Nations (in black)
The U.S. never joined the League & signed its own peace treaty with Germany in 1921

27 Conclusions The impact of the Great War:
The U.S. began the 20th century as an imperial power & reluctantly entered WWI to protect free trade Involvement in WWI led to changes for women & African-Americans, an economic boom, & the restriction of liberties The U.S. played a major role in the peace process, but refusal to join the League weakened the ability of world leaders to stop World War II


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