Presentation on theme: "STANDARD(S): 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation. LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT 1.Summarize Wilson’s Fourteen."— Presentation transcript:
STANDARD(S): 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation. LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT 1.Summarize Wilson’s Fourteen Points 2.Describe the Treaty of Versailles and international and domestic reaction to it. 3.Explain some of the consequences of the war.
NEXT Section 4 Wilson Fights for Peace European leaders oppose most of Wilson’s peace plan, and the U.S. Senate fails to ratify the peace treaty.
NEXT Wilson Presents His Plan Fourteen Points Wilson’s plan for world peace known as Fourteen Points Points 1–5 propose measures to prevent another war 6–13 address how ethnic groups can form own nations or join others 14 calls for international organization or League of Nations League to enable nations to discuss, settle problems without war Wilson Fights for Peace 4 SECTION Continued...
Despite the hero’s welcome he received in Europe, Wilson’s plan for peace would be rejected by the Allies Wilson’s plan was called the “Fourteen points” Included in his “points” were: No secret treaties Freedom of the Seas More free trade Reduction of arms Less colonialism League of Nations to promote peace SECTION 4: WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE
Guided Reading: What Were Wilson’s points? 1. Open Treaties 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Tariffs lowered or abolished to encourage free trade 4. Arms reduction 5. Consideration of the interest of colonial people
Guided Reading: What Were Wilson’s points? (CONT) 6-13. Boundary changes and self determination of ethnic/national groups. 14. A League of Nations
NEXT 4 SECTION The Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan Wilson fails to grasp anger of Allied leaders against Germany French premier Georges Clemenceau wants to prevent German invasion British Prime Minister David Lloyd George wants to “Make Germany Pay” Italian Vittorio Orlando wants Austrian-held territory Conference excludes Central Powers, Russia, small Allied nations Wilson gives up most of his points in return for League of Nations continued Wilson Presents His Plan
ALLIES REJECT WILSON”S PLAN, SIGN TREATY The Big Four leaders, Wilson (U.S.), Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George (England), and Orlando (Italy), worked out the Treaty’s details Wilson conceded on most of his 14 points in return for the establishment of the League of Nations On June 28, 1919, the Big Four and the leaders of the defeated nations gathered in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles and signed the Treaty of Versailles Hall of Mirrors
Chapter 11 Section 4 A – Why did the Allies reject Wilson’s plan? –Clemenceau was determined to prevent another German invasion of France –Allied leaders were all angry at Germany
NEXT 4 SECTION Provisions of the Treaty Treaty of Versailles creates 9 new nations, British, French mandates Places various conditions on Germany: - cannot have an army - Alsace-Lorraine returned to France - pay reparations, or war damages Debating the Treaty of Versailles Continued...
TREATY OF VERSAILLES The Treaty established nine new nations including; Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia The Treaty broke up the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire empires The Treaty barred Germany from maintaining an army, required them to give Alsace- Lorraine back to France, and forced them to pay $33 billion in reparations to the Allies The Big Four met at Versailles
Guided Reading: 15. What terms of the treaty specifically affected Germany? –Demilitarization: –Return of territory (Alsace-Lorraine) to France –$33 Billion in reparations –War-Guilt clause
B – How did the Treaty of Versailles affect Germany? –The treaty forced Germany to assume sole responsibility for the starting World War I; –It forced Germany to pay huge war reparations and stripped it of its colonial possessions.
NEXT 4 SECTION The Treaty’s Weaknesses War-guilt clause—Germany must accept sole responsibility for war Germany cannot pay $33 billion in reparations that Allies want Russia loses more land than Germany; territorial claims ignored Colonized people’s claims for self-determination ignored continued Debating the Treaty of Versailles Continued...
THE WEAKNESS OF THE TREATY The harsh treatment of Germany prevented the Treaty from creating a lasting peace in Europe The Treaty humiliated the Germans by forcing them to admit sole responsibility for the war (War-Guilt Clause) Germans felt the Versailles Treaty was unfair
THE WEAKNESS OF THE TREATY Furthermore, Germany would never be able to pay $33 billion in reparations Germans felt the Versailles Treaty was unfair
Guided Reading: 16. What where the weaknesses of the treaty? –Humiliated Germany –Set reparations that Germany could not possibly pay –Stripped Germany of the colonies it needed to pay reparations –Ignored the claims of colonized peoples self determination –Ignored the sacrifices and desires of Russia –Set Germans against the treaty
NEXT 4 SECTION Opposition to the Treaty Strong opposition to treaty in U.S. Some, like Hoover, think treaty too harsh, fear economic effects Some feel treaty exchanged one group of colonial rulers for another Some ethnic groups not satisfied with new national borders continued Debating the Treaty of Versailles Continued...
In the United States, the Treaty was hotly debated especially the League of Nations Conservative senators, headed by Henry Cabot Lodge, were suspicious of the Leagues’ joint economic and military commitments Many wanted the U.S. Congress to maintain the right to declare war Ultimately, Congress rejected U.S. involvement in the very League the U.S. President had created DEBATE OVER TREATY AT HOME The U.S. never did join the league
NEXT 4 SECTION continued Debating the Treaty of Versailles Debate over the League of Nations Some think League threatens U.S. foreign policy of isolation Senators like Henry Cabot Lodge mistrust provision for joint action Continued...
US SENATE REFUSES TREATY
Guided Reading: 17. Why did Henry Cabot Lodge object to the treaty? –Suspicious of the provision for joint action against aggression; –Wanted the treaty to declare the constitutional right of Congress to declare war.
NEXT 4 SECTION Wilson Refuses to Compromise Wilson ignores Republicans in Senate when choosing U. S. delegation Goes on speaking tour to convince nation to support League - has stroke, is temporarily disabled November 1919, Lodge introduces amendments to treaty - amendments, treaty rejected Wilson refuses to compromise March 1920, 2 nd vote: neither amendments nor treaty approved U.S., Germany sign separate treaty; U.S. never joins League continued Debating the Treaty of Versailles
Guided Reading: 18. How did Wilson help bring about the Senate’s rejection of the treaty? –Wilson chose an American delegation that failed to include enough Republicans and Senators; –Refused to compromise with Lodge
NEXT 4 SECTION The Legacy of the War Consequences of the War In U.S., war strengthens military, increases power of government Accelerates social change for African Americans, women Fears, antagonisms provoked by propaganda remain In Europe, destruction, loss of life damage social, political systems - Communist, fascist governments form Treaty of Versailles does not settle conflicts in Europe
THE LEGACY OF WWI At home, the war strengthened both the military and the power of the government The propaganda campaign provoked powerful fears in society For many countries the war created political instability and violence that lasted for years Russia established the first Communist state during the war Americans called World War I, “The War to end all Wars” --- however unresolved issues would eventually drag the U.S. into an even deadlier conflict WWI 1914-1918 22 million dead, more than half civilians. An additional 20 million wounded.
C – Why were some people afraid of the treaty’s influence over American foreign policy? –It was feared that US membership in the League would force the US to shape its foreign policy in accord with the League.
Guided Reading: 19. What circumstances at this time would eventually lead many Germans to support Adolf Hitler? –Political instability ad violence –Resentment over Germany’s treatment by the allies