Presentation on theme: "LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT"— Presentation transcript:
1LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT STANDARD(S): Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation.LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBATSummarize Wilson’s Fourteen PointsDescribe the Treaty of Versailles and international and domestic reaction to it.Explain some of the consequences of the war.
3Wilson Fights for Peace Section 4Wilson Fights for PeaceEuropean leaders oppose most of Wilson’s peace plan, and the U.S. Senate fails to ratify the peace treaty.NEXT
4Wilson Fights for Peace 4SECTIONWilson Fights for PeaceWilson Presents His PlanFourteen PointsWilson’s plan for world peace known as Fourteen PointsPoints 1–5 propose measures to prevent another war6–13 address how ethnic groups can form own nations or join others14 calls for international organization or League of NationsLeague to enable nations to discuss, settle problems without warContinued . . .NEXT
5SECTION 4: WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE Despite the hero’s welcome he received in Europe, Wilson’s plan for peace would be rejected by the AlliesWilson’s plan was called the “Fourteen points”Included in his “points” were:No secret treatiesFreedom of the SeasMore free tradeReduction of armsLess colonialismLeague of Nations to promote peace
6Guided Reading: What Were Wilson’s points? 1. Open Treaties2. Freedom of the seas3. Tariffs lowered or abolished to encourage free trade4. Arms reduction5. Consideration of the interest of colonial people
7Guided Reading: What Were Wilson’s points? (CONT) Boundary changes and self determination of ethnic/national groups.14. A League of Nations
8The Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan 4SECTIONcontinued Wilson Presents His PlanThe Allies Reject Wilson’s PlanWilson fails to grasp anger of Allied leaders against GermanyFrench premier Georges Clemenceau wants to prevent German invasionBritish Prime Minister David Lloyd George wants to “Make Germany Pay”Italian Vittorio Orlando wants Austrian-held territoryConference excludes Central Powers, Russia, small Allied nationsWilson gives up most of his points in return for League of NationsNEXT
9ALLIES REJECT WILSON”S PLAN, SIGN TREATY The Big Four leaders, Wilson (U.S.), Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George (England), and Orlando (Italy), worked out the Treaty’s detailsWilson conceded on most of his 14 points in return for the establishment of the League of NationsOn June 28, 1919, the Big Four and the leaders of the defeated nations gathered in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles and signed the Treaty of VersaillesHall of Mirrors
10Chapter 11 Section 4 A – Why did the Allies reject Wilson’s plan? Clemenceau was determined to prevent another German invasion of FranceAllied leaders were all angry at Germany
11Debating the Treaty of Versailles 4SECTIONDebating the Treaty of VersaillesProvisions of the Treaty• Treaty of Versailles creates 9 new nations, British, French mandates• Places various conditions on Germany:- cannot have an army- Alsace-Lorraine returned to France- pay reparations, or war damagesContinued . . .NEXT
12TREATY OF VERSAILLESThe Treaty established nine new nations including;Poland, Czechoslovakia, and YugoslaviaThe Treaty broke up the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire empiresThe Treaty barred Germany from maintaining an army, required them to give Alsace-Lorraine back to France, and forced them to pay $33 billion in reparations to the AlliesThe Big Four met at Versailles
14Guided Reading: 15. What terms of the treaty specifically affected Germany? Demilitarization:Return of territory (Alsace-Lorraine) to France$33 Billion in reparationsWar-Guilt clause
15B – How did the Treaty of Versailles affect Germany? The treaty forced Germany to assume sole responsibility for the starting World War I;It forced Germany to pay huge war reparations and stripped it of its colonial possessions.
16The Treaty’s Weaknesses 4SECTIONcontinued Debating the Treaty of VersaillesThe Treaty’s Weaknesses• War-guilt clause—Germany must accept sole responsibility for war• Germany cannot pay $33 billion in reparations that Allies want• Russia loses more land than Germany; territorial claims ignored• Colonized people’s claims for self-determination ignoredContinued . . .NEXT
17THE WEAKNESS OF THE TREATY The harsh treatment of Germany prevented the Treaty from creating a lasting peace in EuropeThe Treaty humiliated the Germans by forcing them to admit sole responsibility for the war (War-Guilt Clause)Germans felt the Versailles Treaty was unfair
18THE WEAKNESS OF THE TREATY Furthermore, Germany would never be able to pay $33 billion in reparationsGermans felt the Versailles Treaty was unfair
19Guided Reading: 16. What where the weaknesses of the treaty? Humiliated GermanySet reparations that Germany could not possibly payStripped Germany of the colonies it needed to pay reparationsIgnored the claims of colonized peoples self determinationIgnored the sacrifices and desires of RussiaSet Germans against the treaty
20Opposition to the Treaty 4SECTIONcontinued Debating the Treaty of VersaillesOpposition to the TreatyStrong opposition to treaty in U.S.Some, like Hoover, think treaty too harsh, fear economic effectsSome feel treaty exchanged one group of colonial rulers for anotherSome ethnic groups not satisfied with new national bordersContinued . . .NEXT
21DEBATE OVER TREATY AT HOME In the United States, the Treaty was hotly debated especially the League of NationsConservative senators, headed by Henry Cabot Lodge, were suspicious of the Leagues’ joint economic and military commitmentsMany wanted the U.S. Congress to maintain the right to declare warUltimately, Congress rejected U.S. involvement in the very League the U.S. President had createdThe U.S. never did join the league
22Debate over the League of Nations 4SECTIONcontinued Debating the Treaty of VersaillesDebate over the League of NationsSome think League threatens U.S. foreign policy of isolationSenators like Henry Cabot Lodge mistrust provision for joint actionContinued . . .NEXT
24Guided Reading: 17. Why did Henry Cabot Lodge object to the treaty? Suspicious of the provision for joint action against aggression;Wanted the treaty to declare the constitutional right of Congress to declare war.
25Wilson Refuses to Compromise 4SECTIONcontinued Debating the Treaty of VersaillesWilson Refuses to CompromiseWilson ignores Republicans in Senate when choosing U. S. delegationGoes on speaking tour to convince nation to support League- has stroke, is temporarily disabledNovember 1919, Lodge introduces amendments to treaty- amendments, treaty rejectedWilson refuses to compromiseMarch 1920, 2nd vote: neither amendments nor treaty approvedU.S., Germany sign separate treaty; U.S. never joins LeagueNEXT
26Guided Reading: 18. How did Wilson help bring about the Senate’s rejection of the treaty? Wilson chose an American delegation that failed to include enough Republicans and Senators;Refused to compromise with Lodge
27The Legacy of the War Consequences of the War 4 SECTIONThe Legacy of the WarConsequences of the WarIn U.S., war strengthens military, increases power of governmentAccelerates social change for African Americans, womenFears, antagonisms provoked by propaganda remainIn Europe, destruction, loss of life damage social, political systems- Communist, fascist governments formTreaty of Versailles does not settle conflicts in EuropeNEXT
28THE LEGACY OF WWIAt home, the war strengthened both the military and the power of the governmentThe propaganda campaign provoked powerful fears in societyFor many countries the war created political instability and violence that lasted for yearsRussia established the first Communist state during the warAmericans called World War I, “The War to end all Wars” --- however unresolved issues would eventually drag the U.S. into an even deadlier conflictWWI22 million dead, more than half civilians. An additional 20 million wounded.
29C – Why were some people afraid of the treaty’s influence over American foreign policy? It was feared that US membership in the League would force the US to shape its foreign policy in accord with the League.