Wilson’s Fourteen Points Self-determinism – national groups with particular ethnic identity get to decide which nation they will belong to League of Nations – associations of nations to promote international cooperation and peace.
The BIG FOUR – U.S., GB, France, and Italy Treaty of Versailles – Wilson gives up most of his “points” in order to secure a League of Nations…
The other guys had very different ideas about the future of Europe… Set new boundaries - Established nine new nations, carved ottoman empire into four areas (Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine) given to GB and France as colonies... Demilitarizing Germany – decreased German military and gave colonies to France Reparations: Germany must pay war damages War-guilt clause: forced Germany to acknowledge that it alone was responsible for WWI
Flaws of Treaty lead to WWII… Germany is humiliated and mad… Russia felt ignored and determined to regain power Ignored claims of colonized people for self- determination
U.S. criticizes treaty… Sell-out to imperialism? Replacing one imperialist power with another? Creates more problems rather than solutions Will cause economic failure in Europe and thus hurt U.S. trade Ethnic groups upset about lack of self- determination for their homeland
Debating the League of Nations Henry Cabot Lodge - leader of the opposition to the league o Nations “That evil thing with the holy name…” Why did he hate it so much?
Wilson appeals to the people… 35 speeches in 22 days… Wilson finally suffers from a stroke that leaves him weak….
The Treaty defeated… Wilson refuses to compromise: “This is not a time for tactics. It is a time to stand square. I can stand defeat; I cannot stand retreat from conscientious duty” Treaty rejected for last time in 1920 – U.S. signed a separate treaty with Germany U.S. never joined League of Nations, but maintained an unofficial observer at meetings…