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Chapter 24, Section 4 The Failed Peace What was Wilson’s fourteen-point peace plan? What did Wilson achieve at the Paris Peace Conference? Why did the.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 24, Section 4 The Failed Peace What was Wilson’s fourteen-point peace plan? What did Wilson achieve at the Paris Peace Conference? Why did the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 24, Section 4 The Failed Peace What was Wilson’s fourteen-point peace plan? What did Wilson achieve at the Paris Peace Conference? Why did the Versailles Treaty fail to win support in the United States?

2 Chapter 24, Section 4 The Fourteen-Point Peace Plan President Wilson was determined to achieve a just and lasting peace. His goal was peace without victory—without punishing the defeated powers. However, Europeans were determined to punish the Germans for the war. Wilson had outlined a peace plan known as the Fourteen Points. It was meant to prevent international problems from causing another war. The plan called for: An end to secret agreements Freedom of the seas, free trade, and a limit on arms Peaceful settlement of disputes over colonies The principle of national self-determination, that is, the right of national groups to have their own territory and forms of government A League of Nations—a “general association of nations” to protect the independence of all countries Wilson persuaded the Allies to accept the Fourteen Points as the basis for making peace. In Paris, however, Wilson faced a constant battle to save his Fourteen Points. The Allies were more concerned with their own interests than with a lasting peace.

3 Chapter 24, Section 4 The Paris Peace Conference Diplomats from more than 30 nations met in Paris and Versailles to negotiate five separate peace treaties known together as the Peace of Paris. Key issues were decided by the leaders of the Allied nations known as the Big Four: Woodrow Wilson of the United States, David Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy. Wilson opposed punishing the defeated powers. The other Allies, however, wanted revenge. They insisted on large reparations, or cash payments, for the losses they had suffered. Further, they wanted to force Germany to accept responsibility for the war. The Allies also wanted to prevent Germany from rebuilding its military strength. Wilson had to compromise on his Fourteen Points in order to save his key goals, especially the League of Nations.

4 Chapter 24, Section 4 The Paris Peace Conference By June 1919, the Treaty of Versailles, the most important treaty of the Peace of Paris, was ready. Germany was not even allowed to send delegates to the peace talks. Under the treaty, Germany had to take full blame for the war. Germany had to pay huge reparations, including the cost of pensions for Allied soldiers or their widows and children— over $300 billion. The treaty returned the piece of land known as Alsace- Lorraine to France. Germany had to give all of its overseas colonies to Britain and France.

5 Chapter 24, Section 4 Boundary Changes After World War I

6 Chapter 24, Section 4 German Reparations

7 Chapter 24, Section 4 What Wilson Achieved at the Peace Conference Wilson gained a few of his Fourteen Points. In Eastern Europe, the Allies provided for several new nations to be formed on the principle of national self- determination, including Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. Many Germans had settled in Poland and Czechoslovakia. It wouldn’t be long before Germany would seek to regain control of German-speaking peoples in Eastern Europe. Wilson persuaded the Allies to include the League of Nations in the treaty. Wilson was certain that the League would prevent future wars by allowing nations to talk over their problems.

8 Chapter 24, Section 4 The Fight to Win Support for the Versailles Treaty Most Americans favored the treaty. A loud minority opposed it. Some said it was too soft on the defeated powers. Many German Americans felt it was too harsh on Germany. Some Republicans hoped to embarrass President Wilson by defeating the treaty in the United States. Isolationists, people who wanted the United States to stay out of world affairs, opposed the League of Nations. Other people felt that the League did not have enough authority to solve any pressing economic problems. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts accepted the idea of a League, but he wanted changes. He objected to an article that called for the League to protect any member whose independence or territory was threatened. He feared this measure could involve the United States in future European wars. He also wanted Congress to have the power to decide whether the United States would follow League policy. Wilson refused to compromise with Lodge.

9 Chapter 24, Section 4 The Fight to Win Support for the Versailles Treaty President Wilson set out across the country to convince the American people to accept the treaty. Part way through his planned trip, he suffered a stroke. In November 1919, the Senate rejected the Versailles Treaty. The United States did not sign a peace treaty with Germany until Many nations joined the League of Nations, but the United States never did.

10 Chapter 24, Section 4 Section 4 Assessment President Wilson felt that his greatest achievement at the peace conference was persuading the Allies to a) accept the idea of a League of Nations. b) allow the Big Four to redraw the boundaries of Eastern Europe. c) punish Germany by demanding reparations. d) promote new secret agreements between nations. Some Americans criticized the peace treaty because they feared it would mean a) the nation could no longer take part in world affairs. b) Germany would not be punished enough for the war. c) new Eastern European nations would not be formed on the principle of self-determination. d) Americans would be asked to subject their will to the will of other countries. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.

11 Chapter 24, Section 4 Section 4 Assessment President Wilson felt that his greatest achievement at the peace conference was persuading the Allies to a) accept the idea of a League of Nations. b) allow the Big Four to redraw the boundaries of Eastern Europe. c) punish Germany by demanding reparations. d) promote new secret agreements between nations. Some Americans criticized the peace treaty because they feared it would mean a) the nation could no longer take part in world affairs. b) Germany would not be punished enough for the war. c) new Eastern European nations would not be formed on the principle of self-determination. d) Americans would be asked to subject their will to the will of other countries. Want to connect to the American History link for this section? Click here.


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