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WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE Chapter 11 Section 4 MAIN IDEA: European leaders opposed most of Wilson’s peace plan, and the U.S. Senate failed to ratify the.

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Presentation on theme: "WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE Chapter 11 Section 4 MAIN IDEA: European leaders opposed most of Wilson’s peace plan, and the U.S. Senate failed to ratify the."— Presentation transcript:

1 WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE Chapter 11 Section 4 MAIN IDEA: European leaders opposed most of Wilson’s peace plan, and the U.S. Senate failed to ratify the peace treaty. OBJECTIVES: 1. Summarize Wilson’s Fourteen Points 2. Describe the Treaty of Versailles and international and domestic reaction to it. 3. Explain some of the consequences of the war.

2 Wilson Presents His Plan Fourteen Points-Plan for World Peace Fourteen Points-Plan for World Peace Fourteen Points speech given before Congress, points divided into three groups Fourteen Points speech given before Congress, points divided into three groups First 5 points Wilson believed had to be addressed to prevent another war First 5 points Wilson believed had to be addressed to prevent another war

3 14 POINTS 1. There should be no secret treaties among nations. 2. Freedom of the seas should be maintained for all. 3. Tariffs and other economic barriers among nations should be lowered or abolished in order to foster free trade. 4. Arms should be reduced “to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety, thus lessening the possibility of military responses during diplomatic crises 5. Colonial policies should consider the interests of the colonial peoples as well as the interests of the imperialistic powers

4 14-points continued 6-13 dealt with boundary changes 6-13 dealt with boundary changes 14 th point called for a creation of and international organization to address the diplomatic crises like those that had sparked the war 14 th point called for a creation of and international organization to address the diplomatic crises like those that had sparked the war League of Nations- provide a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without war League of Nations- provide a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without war

5 The Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan Georges Clemenceau-French premier angry about German invasions Georges Clemenceau-French premier angry about German invasions David Lloyd George-British Prime Minister, “Make Germany Pay” David Lloyd George-British Prime Minister, “Make Germany Pay” Peace Conference did not include Central Powers or Russia Peace Conference did not include Central Powers or Russia Treaty of Versailles-created new nations, shifted boundaries, and barred Germany from maintaining an Army Treaty of Versailles-created new nations, shifted boundaries, and barred Germany from maintaining an Army Germany made to pay reparations-pay war damages amounting to 33 billion Germany made to pay reparations-pay war damages amounting to 33 billion

6 Treaty’s Weaknesses Flaws in the treaty sowed the seeds of postwar international problems that eventually lead to WWII Flaws in the treaty sowed the seeds of postwar international problems that eventually lead to WWII Treaty humiliated Germany Treaty humiliated Germany War-Guilt Clause-forced Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting WWI War-Guilt Clause-forced Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting WWI No way Germany could pay the bill No way Germany could pay the bill Russia was excluded from the peace conference and lost more territory than Germany (Russia had the most causalities in war and fought for 3 years) Russia was excluded from the peace conference and lost more territory than Germany (Russia had the most causalities in war and fought for 3 years)

7 Debate of the Treaty Some believed treaty was too harsh Some believed treaty was too harsh A few felt that the League of Nations threatened US isolationism and the constitutional right of Congress to declare war A few felt that the League of Nations threatened US isolationism and the constitutional right of Congress to declare war Wilson set out in the US and spoke about the League of Nations Wilson set out in the US and spoke about the League of Nations Became ill on October 2, 1919 and suffered a stroke Became ill on October 2, 1919 and suffered a stroke US Senate rejected the League of Nations and signed a separate treaty w/ Germany in 1921 US Senate rejected the League of Nations and signed a separate treaty w/ Germany in 1921

8 THE LEGACY OF THE WAR Many Americans looked forward to return to “normalcy” Many Americans looked forward to return to “normalcy” World War I had many changes in the U.S. World War I had many changes in the U.S. Strengthened military Strengthened military Social change for African Americans and Women Social change for African Americans and Women Called WWI “the war to end all wars” Called WWI “the war to end all wars” Treaty of Versailles settled nothing Treaty of Versailles settled nothing Adolf Hitler emerged as an angry WWI vet and rose to power in Germany Adolf Hitler emerged as an angry WWI vet and rose to power in Germany

9 Vocabulary Fourteen Points Fourteen Points League of Nations League of Nations Georges Clemenceau Georges Clemenceau David Lloyd George David Lloyd George Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles Reparations Reparations War-Guilt Clause War-Guilt Clause Henry Cabot Lodge Henry Cabot Lodge Big Four Big Four


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