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PRESIDENT WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE. Treaty of Versailles Allies have a desire to “get back at Germany” = reparations Allies have a desire to “get back.

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Presentation on theme: "PRESIDENT WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE. Treaty of Versailles Allies have a desire to “get back at Germany” = reparations Allies have a desire to “get back."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRESIDENT WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE

2 Treaty of Versailles Allies have a desire to “get back at Germany” = reparations Allies have a desire to “get back at Germany” = reparations Flaws in the treaty sowed the seeds of postwar international problems that eventually lead to WWII Flaws in the treaty sowed the seeds of postwar international problems that eventually lead to WWII Treaty humiliated Germany Treaty humiliated Germany War-Guilt Clause-forced Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting WWI War-Guilt Clause-forced Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting WWI No way Germany could pay the bill- $33 Billion Dollars!!!!! No way Germany could pay the bill- $33 Billion Dollars!!!!! Russia was excluded from the peace conference and lost more territory than Germany (Russia had the most causalities in war and fought for 3 years) Russia was excluded from the peace conference and lost more territory than Germany (Russia had the most causalities in war and fought for 3 years) Some believed treaty was too harsh Some believed treaty was too harsh

3 When did Germany make the last payment for it’s WWI reparations? When did Germany make the last payment for it’s WWI reparations?

4 October 10 th …. October 10 th ….

5 …2010 …2010 The German’s made the final payment of 60 million dollars on October 10 th, The German’s made the final payment of 60 million dollars on October 10 th, 2010.

6 President Wilson’s 14 Points President Woodrow Wilson of the USA President Woodrow Wilson of the USA 14 Points = document giving 14 points to ensure peace after WWI’s end 14 Points = document giving 14 points to ensure peace after WWI’s end Self-determination- what is this? Self-determination- what is this? League of Nations League of Nations

7 Wilson Presents His Plan Fourteen Points-Plan for World Peace Fourteen Points-Plan for World Peace Fourteen Points speech given before Congress, points divided into three groups Fourteen Points speech given before Congress, points divided into three groups First 5 points Wilson believed had to be addressed to prevent another war First 5 points Wilson believed had to be addressed to prevent another war

8 14 POINTS 1. There should be no secret treaties among nations. 2. Freedom of the seas should be maintained for all. 3. Tariffs and other economic barriers among nations should be lowered or abolished (tariffs) in order to foster free trade. 4. Arms should be reduced “to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety, thus lessening the possibility of military responses during diplomatic crises 5. Colonial policies should consider the interests of the colonial peoples as well as the interests of the imperialistic powers BUCKETS?

9 Continued… 6-13 dealt with boundary changes 6-13 dealt with boundary changes 14 th point called for a creation of and international organization to address the diplomatic crises like those that had sparked the war 14 th point called for a creation of and international organization to address the diplomatic crises like those that had sparked the war League of Nations- provide a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without war League of Nations- provide a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without war

10 The League of Nations Encourage co-operation Stop aggression Disarmament Improve social conditions AIMS

11 Powers of the League If a country ignored the ruling of the League it could: If a country ignored the ruling of the League it could: Put pressure on Put pressure on Refuse to trade - sanctions Refuse to trade - sanctions Send in troops (but no fighting) - member countries join together Send in troops (but no fighting) - member countries join together

12 Strengths of the League Many countries supported it in early days - they wanted peace Many countries supported it in early days - they wanted peace Had some early successes Had some early successes Settled some land disputes in 1920’s Settled some land disputes in 1920’s Helped refugees, deal with spread of disease & fought for better conditions for people Helped refugees, deal with spread of disease & fought for better conditions for people

13 A few felt that the League of Nations threatened US isolationism and the constitutional right of Congress to declare war A few felt that the League of Nations threatened US isolationism and the constitutional right of Congress to declare war Wilson set out in the US and spoke about the League of Nations Wilson set out in the US and spoke about the League of Nations Became ill on October 2, Became ill on October 2, 1919 and suffered a stroke US Senate rejected the US Senate rejected the League of Nations and signed a separate treaty w/ Germany in 1921 w/ Germany in 1921

14 Membership 42 members - by 1930’s members - by 1930’s 59 Defeated countries could not join (e.g. Germany) Defeated countries could not join (e.g. Germany) Russia excluded because communist Russia excluded because communist USA did not join - isolation from world affairs USA did not join - isolation from world affairs A club for the victorious? A club for the victorious?

15 Weaknesses of League USA didn’t join USA didn’t join No real power - relied on goodwill and persuasion No real power - relied on goodwill and persuasion No permanent army No permanent army Disarmament not realistic Disarmament not realistic Structure a disaster - everyone had to agree before any action taken!!! Structure a disaster - everyone had to agree before any action taken!!!

16 THE LEGACY OF THE WAR Many Americans looked forward to return to “normalcy” Many Americans looked forward to return to “normalcy” World War I had many changes in the U.S. World War I had many changes in the U.S. Strengthened military Strengthened military Social change for African Americans and Women Social change for African Americans and Women Called WWI “the war to end all wars” Called WWI “the war to end all wars” Treaty of Versailles settled nothing Treaty of Versailles settled nothing Adolf Hitler emerged as an angry WWI vet and rose to power in Germany Adolf Hitler emerged as an angry WWI vet and rose to power in Germany

17 First Female President?

18 Exit Slip Analyze the consequences and international reaction to the Treaty of Versailles. (What & why were these the consequences and reaction)

19

20 Vocabulary Fourteen Points Fourteen Points League of Nations League of Nations Georges Clemenceau Georges Clemenceau David Lloyd George David Lloyd George Treaty of Versailles Treaty of Versailles Reparations Reparations War-Guilt Clause War-Guilt Clause Henry Cabot Lodge Henry Cabot Lodge Big Four Big Four

21 WILSON FIGHTS FOR PEACE Chapter 11 Section 4 MAIN IDEA: European leaders opposed most of Wilson’s peace plan, and the U.S. Senate failed to ratify the peace treaty. OBJECTIVES: 1. Summarize Wilson’s Fourteen Points 2. Describe the Treaty of Versailles and international and domestic reaction to it. 3. Explain some of the consequences of the war.

22 The Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan Georges Clemenceau-French premier angry about German invasions Georges Clemenceau-French premier angry about German invasions David Lloyd George-British Prime Minister, “Make Germany Pay” David Lloyd George-British Prime Minister, “Make Germany Pay” Peace Conference did not include Central Powers or Russia Peace Conference did not include Central Powers or Russia Treaty of Versailles-created new nations, shifted boundaries, and barred Germany from maintaining an Army Treaty of Versailles-created new nations, shifted boundaries, and barred Germany from maintaining an Army Germany made to pay reparations-pay war damages amounting to 33 billion Germany made to pay reparations-pay war damages amounting to 33 billion


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