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December 2, 2008 What were Wilson’s Fourteen Points and why were they rejected? Section 3 Quiz Creativity Quick Presentations Fourteen Points & Treaty.

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Presentation on theme: "December 2, 2008 What were Wilson’s Fourteen Points and why were they rejected? Section 3 Quiz Creativity Quick Presentations Fourteen Points & Treaty."— Presentation transcript:

1 December 2, 2008 What were Wilson’s Fourteen Points and why were they rejected? Section 3 Quiz Creativity Quick Presentations Fourteen Points & Treaty of Versailles Legacy of War Homework: Rough Draft and Geography of War (due Thursday)

2 Wilson Presents His Plan Wilson seen as hero in Europe Many appealed to him to set up their own nation states

3 Wilson’s Fourteen Points Self-determination of nations Freedom of the seas No secret treaties Free trade, arms reduction Recognize rights of colonized peoples International peacekeeping organization – League of Nations

4 Boundary Changes The next eight points Wilson based provision on principle of self-determination Distinct ethnic groups decide for themselves to what nations they would belong

5 League of Nations 14 th point Forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances without having to resort to war.

6 The Allies Reject Wilson’s Plan Wilson’s naiveté about the political aspects of securing a peace treaty showed itself in his failure to grasp the anger felt by the Allied Leaders

7 George Clemenceau (French Premier) two German invasions of France determined to prevent future invasions

8 British Prime minister David Lloyd George won election on the slogan “make Germany Pay”

9 Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlando wanted to control of Austrian-held territory

10 Contrary to custom, the peace conference did not include the defeated Central Powers It did not include Russia, which was now under Communist government Did not include the smaller allied nations

11 The Big Four Wilson, Clemenceau, Lloyd George, and Orlando worked on the treaty details amongst themselves Wilson conceded on most of his Fourteen Points in return for the establishment of the League of Nations

12 Treaty of Versailles June 1919, the Big Four & the leaders of the defeated nations gathered in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles to sign the peace treaty They hoped that the treaty would create stability for a rebuilt Europe

13 Hall of Mirrors

14 The Big Four

15 Provisions of the Treaty The Treaty of Versailles established nine new nations Poland Czechoslovakia Yugoslavia It shifted the boundaries of other nations


17 Carved five new areas out of the Ottoman Empire and gave them to France and Great Britain as mandates, or temporary colonies Those two Allies were to administer their respective mandates until the areas were ready for self-rule and then independence

18 Treaty barred Germany from maintaining an army and required it to return the region of Alsace- Lorraine to France They had to pay reparations amounting to $33 billion to the Allies

19 The Treaty’s Weaknesses Several flaws in the treaty sowed the seeds of postwar international problems that eventually would lead to the Second World War

20 Humiliated Germany Contained war-guilt clause forcing Germany to admit sole responsibility for starting WWI

21 There was no way Germany could pay the reparations Germany was stripped of its colonial possessions in the Pacific, which might have helped it pay its bill

22 Russians had fought on the side of the Allies suffered higher casualties excluded from peace talks lost more territory than Germany

23 The Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) or Soviet Union as Russia was officially called after 1922 became determined to regain its territory

24 Treaty ignored claims of colonized people for self-determination, as in the case of Southeast Asia, where the Vietnamese people were beginning to demand the same political rights enjoyed by people in Western nations

25 Opposition to Treaty Wilson faced strong opposition to the treaty when returned home Some believed it was too harsh “The economic consequences alone will pull done all Europe and thus injure the U.S.” (Hoover)

26 others considered the treaty a sell-out to imperialism because it simply exchanged one set of colonial rulers for another

27 Ethnic groups objected to the treaty because the new national boundaries it established did not satisfy their particular demands for self- determination for example: before the war Poles had been under German rule, now many Germans were under Polish rule

28 Debate over the League of Nations Domestic opposition centered on the League of Nations threatened U.S. foreign policy of isolationism

29 Conservative senators like Henry Cabot Lodge – suspicious of the provision for joint economic and military action against aggression, even though it was voluntary wanted constitutional right of Congress to declare war included in the treaty


31 Wilson Refuses to Compromise Wilson ignored Republican majority in the Senate when he chose the members of the American delegation If he had been more willing to accept a compromise on the League, it would have been more likely that the Senate would have approved the treaty


33 Wilson set out in September 1919 on an 8,000-mile tout Delivered 34 speeches in about 3 weeks, explaining why the US should join the League of Nations October 2, Wilson suffered a stroke and lay partially paralyzed for more than two months, unable to even meet with his cabinet

34 Senate voted in November 1919 Lodge introduced amendments the most important stated the terms for the U.S. would enter the League of Nations Feared membership would force the U.S. to form its foreign policy according to the League

35 Senate rejected the amendments and failed to ratify the treaty. Wilson refused to compromise Treaty came up for vote again, Senate rejected the Lodge Amendments and failed to get enough votes for ratification

36 The U.S. signed a separate treaty with Germany in 1921, after Wilson was no longer president The U.S. never joined the League but maintained unofficial observer at League meetings.

37 The Legacy of War Americans looked forward to “normalcy”

38 U.S. Transformed by War WWI strengthened U.S. military and government Accelerated social change Propaganda campaign provoked fears and antagonisms that were left unchanneled when the war finally came to an end

39 Europe Was Changed by War Destruction and massive loss of life damaged social & political systems Instability and violence persisted for decades First communist nation formed Militant fascist governments seized control in Italy, Spain, and Germany

40 The War to End all Wars appalled Americans began to think about WWI humanity would never again go through such a war

41 unresolved issues would drag America into an even wider war Treaty of Versailles settled nothing some longed to resume the fight The ominous shape of things to come emerged in the writings of an Austrian named Adolf Hitler, an angry veteran of WWI

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