Presentation on theme: "Armistice: agreement to end fighting Mandates: territories that were administered by the western powers Divided up land Reparations: Payments for war damage."— Presentation transcript:
Armistice: agreement to end fighting Mandates: territories that were administered by the western powers Divided up land Reparations: Payments for war damage The Allies insisted that the losers make reparations – the Central Powers viewed their armistice as a cease-fire, not a surrender
U.S. had greatest impact on the war 1918 - Europe was in ruins Costs of WWI: Civilian + Military casualties = 37 million (37,000,000) financial burden of reconstruction of almost all of Europe – war debts governments in Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and the Ottoman empire had collapsed colonies saw that Europe was weak and were ready to fight for independence
George (Britain), Orlando (Italy), Clemenceau (France), and Wilson (US) WHO IS NOT IN ATTENDANCE??
Germany and Russia were not represented!! Wilson’s plan for peace - FOURTEEN POINTS Outlined a plan for achieving and keeping peace 1. end to secret treaties 2. freedom of the seas 3. free trade 4. reduced armies and navies 5. self determination 6. League of Nations GEORGE (UK) & CLEMENCEAU (FRANCE): weaken Germany and make it pay for the war.
June 28, 1919 – Germans ordered to sign Treaty of Versailles against their will. The Germans resented the terms of the Treaty of Versailles “You’ve got to swallow it whether you like it or not!”
accept full blame for causing the war (and all damages done) pay reparations (not only for the destruction, but also pensions for millions of Allied soldiers or their widows and families) Total cost of German reparations – over $30 billion!!! – did great damage to already poor German economy limits the size of the military Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France stripped of much of its land & all of its colonies
1919 Republicans controlled Senate aka they had to ratify the treaty Chance to embarrass Wilson Wilson would not include any Republican in the negotiating team sent to Paris Henry Cabot Lodge – main Wilson opponent Delayed votes on treaty so opponents could present their case
1921 the U.S. signed a separate peace treaty with each of the Central Powers NEVER JOINED THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS
Allies drew up separate treaties with the other Central Powers –redrew the map of Europe New Nations emerged from German, Russian, and Austrian Lands: Baltic States Poland Austria- Hungary became 3 new republics – Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary Yugoslavia
European colonies in Africa, Asia, and the Pacific wanted Wilson’s self-determination and an end to imperial rule – they did not get it The Allies added to their overseas empires by creating a system of mandates (see above) GB & France took German colonies in Africa and Ottoman land in the Middle East
Germany was not the only country upset by the Treaty of Versailles Italy - didn’t get all the lands promised to them in their secret treaty with the Allies Japan - western nations refused to recognize Japan’s claims in China China was forced to accept Japanese control over some former German holdings in China Russia was excluded from the peace talks and resented the reestablishment of Poland and the Baltic states (it was Russian land)