Presentation on theme: "Wilson’s Plan -based on idea of Peace without Victory Wilson idealistic – wanted a just and lasting peace -would eliminate reasons for future wars democracy."— Presentation transcript:
Wilson’s Plan -based on idea of Peace without Victory Wilson idealistic – wanted a just and lasting peace -would eliminate reasons for future wars democracy freedom of the sea reduce armaments -set certain goals for the world On January 18, 1918 Wilson delivered his Fourteen Points to Congress. The first five point addressed issues that he believed caused WWI. The next eight dealt with specific boundary changes, based on self-determination. The last point called for the creation of a League of Nations to provide a forum for nations to settle disagreements without war.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
Fourteen Points -Wilson’s speech that organized his idea of the future 1-5 prevent another war 6-13 boundary changes 14 League of Nations -described solution to prevent causes of the war no secret treaties freedom of seas lower tariffs reduce armaments self determination – consider the interests of colonized people; fight for their own independence -League of Nations – Forum for nations to discuss problems without going to war (like the UN)
Versailles Peace Conference -Big Four U.S., Britain, France, Italy -Central Powers left out of the meetings as was Russia Russia now Communist, loses a lot of land; causes problems later -Allied leaders wanted to blame and punish Germany No more German invasions Make Germany pay -Most of the 14 Points were ignored Wilson conceded most of his 14 points for the League of Nations -Wilson did manage to secure the League of Nations The “Big Four” meet outside of Versailles in France. Wilson had failed to grasp the anger felt by Britain and France. The French leader had lived through two German invasions of France and was determined that it would not happen again. The British prime minister had just won reelection on the slogan “Make Germany Pay.” Wilson’s peaceful points would not meet the vengeful needs of the Allies.
Treaty of Versailles
Peace Treaty -nine new nations created and several borders moved Some new nations given to Britain and France until ready to be on own -Germany is demilitarized Is not allowed to have army/navy -reparations must be paid Germany pays $33 billion to the Allies -Germany must acknowledge war guilt Germans admit sole responsibility Weaknesses of Treaty will lead to future wars Germany can’t repay – depression leads to rise of Hitler Russia is ignored – wants land back Italy gets nothing Colonialism remained The treaty humiliated German. Although German militarism had played a major role in igniting the war, other European nations had been no less guilty in provoking the diplomatic crises before the war. The war-guilt clause caused Germans of all political viewpoints to despise the treaty. The Russian government felt the Big Four had ignored its needs. For three years, the Russians had fought with the Allies and suffered higher casualties than any other nation. Yet, Russia lost more territory than Germany.
Opposition -Some thought it too harsh Especially against Germany -others thought it changed nothing -U.S. leaders disliked the League of Nations Threatened U.S. policy of isolationism Henry Cabot Lodge Leader against League of Nations threatens our ability to stay out of foreign affairs -Wilson sets out to appeal to the people – to back League of Nations Wilson suffers a stroke -U.S. Senate never approves the treaty
Wilson Battles with the Senate
The cartoon above shows that the USA have built the League of Nations by bringing the four nations together, yet refuse to be the vital key stone. The League is clearly useless because of this.
Wilson’s Legacy Ushers the U.S. into a new era – the Roaring Twenties -Progressive reformer Many Progressive changes -Prohibition starts 18 th Amendment, no alcohol -women’s suffrage 19 th Amendment -Victory in the Great War -vision of a world organization to prevent war League of Nations -prediction of future wars WW II “The Germans never believe that they were beaten. It will have to be done all over again.” General John J. Pershing