Fibers Natural Fibers- produced by nature Cotton- absorbs moisture, comfortable to wear, strong, dyes well; negatives- wrinkles and shrinks Linen- strong, absorbent, but wrinkles easy so used in the “wrinkled look” or has a wrinkle resistant finish applied Ramie-strong and durable, absorbs moisture and dries quickly; it is brittle when dry and wrinkles so it usually combined with other fabrics Wool- valued for warmth, wears well, resists wrinkling, absorbs moisture and feels dry; will shrink in hot water and can burn easily when put with high heat Silk- strongest fiber, comfortable to wear and resists wrinkles
Fibers Manufactured Fibers- produced in laboratories through chemical processes; feel like real fibers Acetate- used for evening wear and lining fabric; comfortable to wear, doesn’t wear well though- weak fabric Acrylic- known for warmth; machine washable and wrinkle-resistant; but can form little balls on the surface Nylon- strong and durable; repels water Polyester- used alone or blended with other fibers Stays fluffy even when wet Rayon- comfortable, combined with other fabrics Minimizes wrinkling and shrinking Spandex- stretches and recovers to normal shape
Blends Every fiber has good qualities, but none are perfect Most are blended with two or more fibers Manufactured fibers have two names: Generic- common name for similar fibers Trade- manufacturer’s name Dotrel, Fortrel, Kodel- manufacturer name for polyester fabric
Fabric Construction Weaving Plain weave- yarn passes over and under Twill weave- passes over two then under two (denim) Satin weave- pass over four or more then under one ( shiny but not strong) Pile weave - 3 sets of yarn used to make it, woven in plain, twill, or satin; then an extra set of yarn is woven so that loops or cut ends are produced on the fabric surface Knitting Single knits- t-shirts/ simple dresses; smooth appearance on front and back Rib knits- made with two sets of needles, vertical ribs on both sides- used for close fitting tops and stretch trim Interlock knits- smooth surface on both sides; less stretch; used for soft casual garments Double knits- made with 2 interlocking layers- durable and wrinkle resistant Tricot knits-undergarments and night gowns- narrow vertical ribs on the front and cross wise on the back
Fabric Construction Bonding- fibers are mechanically or chemically joined together with steam or heat used with an adhesive Gives shapes to non woven fabric
Fabric Finishes Color Piece dyed- color added into yarn before woven into fabric Print process- rolled onto fabric Screen printing- dyes are forced through a screen onto fabric Other finishes Flame-retardant- fabric resist burning Permanent or durable press- little or no ironing after washing Sanforized- prevents shrinking of more than 1% Stain and spot resistant- helps to resists stains/spots Waterproof- prevents fabric from absorbing water Water-repellant- prevents from absorbing water, but not shedding it completely
Table Project Research a natural fiber Tell how and where it is produced Locate the area on the world map Explain why fiber grows well in this region
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.