24 BiasBias: The diagonal grain of a fabric. It gives (stretch).
25 Plain Weave The simplest and most common weave. Weft passes under each warpChiffon/Tafetta
26 Twill Weave Weft passes under 2 or 3 warps diagonal design on the surfaceVery strong and durableUsed in Denim
27 Satin Weave Weft passes under numerous warps produces a smooth, shiny surfaced fabric
28 KnittingKnitting: constructing fabric by looping yarns together.
29 GaugeGauge: The number of stitches, or loops, per inch in a knitted fabric.
30 Weft Knit One yarn runs crosswise to form a horizontal row of loops Cut edges will curlRuns if snaggedJersey and Sweater knits
31 Warp Knit Several yarns creating loops in a lengthwise direction Selvage Edges – strong edge that does not ravelVery resistant to runsUsed in lingere
32 Non-woven Fibers are compacted together. Moisture, heat, chemicals, or pressureDryer SheetsSterile Gowns and CapsDisposable Diapers
33 QuiltingQuilted fabric. A layer of padding is sandwiched between two layers of fabric and held in place by stitching.Examples of use: bedspreads, placemats, and outerwear
34 BraidedInterlacing 3 or more yarns to form a regular pattern
35 Laces and NetsKnotting, twisting, or looping yarns together
36 FinishingFinishing: applying colors, designs, or surface treatments to change the look, feel, performance of fabrics.
37 Types of Finishing Mechanical – finishes that are applied mechanically Affect the size and appearanceDyeing, Cutting, Brushing, Glazing, EmbossingChemical – Finishes that become part of the fabric through a chemical reactionWaterproofing, Stain Resistant, Flame Resistant
38 Bleaching (Chemical)Bleaching: chemical process that removes color, impurities, or spots
39 Dyeing (Mechanical)Adding color to fiber, yarn, or fabric
40 Printing (Mechanical) Adding a pattern or design to the surface of a fabric
41 Trends and Technology Equipment and Machinery Microfibers Faster, more efficientCAD – Computer aided designMicrofibersUltra-fine, soft, luxurious, inexpensiveHigh-performanceSportswearWicking – pulls sweat away, keeps body cooler
42 Trends and Technology Non-Wovens – Individuality Recycling Medical textiles – protection from bodily fluidsProtection from hazardous materialsSPF GarmentsIndividualityCustomize garments(monograms)Recycling
43 Plastic Soda BottlesPlastic soda bottles: recycled into t-shirts.
44 Fabric Government Regulations Wool Products Labeling Act (1939)Wool products must have percentage and type of wool listed on labelTextile Fiber Products Identification Act (1958)All clothing labels list generic fiber content
45 Fabric Government Regulations Flammable Fabrics Act (1953)Regulates sale of highly flammable fabricsProhibits extremely flammable fabrics
46 Fabric Government Regulations Permanent Care Labeling Act (1972)All clothing required to have care instruction labelsSymbols wereintroduced in 1997