Weaving Interlacing one or more sets of yarns at right angles Interlacing one or more sets of yarns at right angles
Warp Strands that run lengthwise. Strands that run lengthwise. Up and Down Up and Down
Weft Strands that run crosswise. (right-left)
Bias Bias: The diagonal grain of a fabric. It gives (stretch).
Plain Weave The simplest and most common weave. Weft passes under each warp Chiffon/Tafetta
Twill Weave Weft passes under 2 or 3 warps diagonal design on the surface Very strong and durable Used in Denim
Satin Weave Weft passes under numerous warps Weft passes under numerous warps produces a smooth, shiny surfaced fabric produces a smooth, shiny surfaced fabric
Knitting KKKKnitting: constructing fabric by looping yarns together.
Gauge GGGGauge: The number of stitches, or loops, per inch in a knitted fabric.
Weft Knit One yarn runs crosswise to form a horizontal row of loops Cut edges will curl Runs if snagged Jersey and Sweater knits
Warp Knit Several yarns creating loops in a lengthwise direction Selvage Edges – strong edge that does not ravel Very resistant to runs Used in lingere
Non-woven Fibers are compacted together. Moisture, heat, chemicals, or pressure Dryer Sheets Sterile Gowns and Caps Disposable Diapers
Quilting Quilted fabric. A layer of padding is sandwiched between two layers of fabric and held in place by stitching. Examples of use: bedspreads, placemats, and outerwear
Braided Interlacing 3 or more yarns to form a regular pattern
Laces and Nets Knotting, twisting, or looping yarns together
Finishing Finishing: applying colors, designs, or surface treatments to change the look, feel, performance of fabrics.
Types of Finishing Mechanical – finishes that are applied mechanically –Affect the size and appearance –Dyeing, Cutting, Brushing, Glazing, Embossing Chemical – Finishes that become part of the fabric through a chemical reaction –Waterproofing, Stain Resistant, Flame Resistant
Bleaching (Chemical) BBBBleaching: chemical process that removes color, impurities, or spots
Dyeing (Mechanical) Adding color to fiber, yarn, or fabric
Printing (Mechanical) Adding a pattern or design to the surface of a fabric
Trends and Technology Equipment and Machinery Faster, more efficient CAD – Computer aided design Microfibers Ultra-fine, soft, luxurious, inexpensive High-performance Sportswear Wicking – pulls sweat away, keeps body cooler
Trends and Technology Non-Wovens – Medical textiles – protection from bodily fluids Protection from hazardous materials SPF Garments Individuality Customize garments (monograms) Recycling
Plastic Soda Bottles Plastic soda bottles: recycled into t-shirts.
Fabric Government Regulations Wool Products Labeling Act (1939) Wool products must have percentage and type of wool listed on label Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (1958) All clothing labels list generic fiber content
Fabric Government Regulations Flammable Fabrics Act (1953) Regulates sale of highly flammable fabrics Prohibits extremely flammable fabrics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kb4tCcnA6jo
Fabric Government Regulations Permanent Care Labeling Act (1972) All clothing required to have care instruction labels Symbols were introduced in 1997