24BiasBias: The diagonal grain of a fabric. It gives (stretch).
25Plain Weave The simplest and most common weave. Weft passes under each warpChiffon/Tafetta
26Twill Weave Weft passes under 2 or 3 warps diagonal design on the surfaceVery strong and durableUsed in Denim
27Satin Weave Weft passes under numerous warps produces a smooth, shiny surfaced fabric
28KnittingKnitting: constructing fabric by looping yarns together.
29GaugeGauge: The number of stitches, or loops, per inch in a knitted fabric.
30Weft Knit One yarn runs crosswise to form a horizontal row of loops Cut edges will curlRuns if snaggedJersey and Sweater knits
31Warp Knit Several yarns creating loops in a lengthwise direction Selvage Edges – strong edge that does not ravelVery resistant to runsUsed in lingere
32Non-woven Fibers are compacted together. Moisture, heat, chemicals, or pressureDryer SheetsSterile Gowns and CapsDisposable Diapers
33QuiltingQuilted fabric. A layer of padding is sandwiched between two layers of fabric and held in place by stitching.Examples of use: bedspreads, placemats, and outerwear
34BraidedInterlacing 3 or more yarns to form a regular pattern
35Laces and NetsKnotting, twisting, or looping yarns together
36FinishingFinishing: applying colors, designs, or surface treatments to change the look, feel, performance of fabrics.
37Types of Finishing Mechanical – finishes that are applied mechanically Affect the size and appearanceDyeing, Cutting, Brushing, Glazing, EmbossingChemical – Finishes that become part of the fabric through a chemical reactionWaterproofing, Stain Resistant, Flame Resistant
38Bleaching (Chemical)Bleaching: chemical process that removes color, impurities, or spots
39Dyeing (Mechanical)Adding color to fiber, yarn, or fabric
40Printing (Mechanical) Adding a pattern or design to the surface of a fabric
41Trends and Technology Equipment and Machinery Microfibers Faster, more efficientCAD – Computer aided designMicrofibersUltra-fine, soft, luxurious, inexpensiveHigh-performanceSportswearWicking – pulls sweat away, keeps body cooler
42Trends and Technology Non-Wovens – Individuality Recycling Medical textiles – protection from bodily fluidsProtection from hazardous materialsSPF GarmentsIndividualityCustomize garments(monograms)Recycling
43Plastic Soda BottlesPlastic soda bottles: recycled into t-shirts.
44Fabric Government Regulations Wool Products Labeling Act (1939)Wool products must have percentage and type of wool listed on labelTextile Fiber Products Identification Act (1958)All clothing labels list generic fiber content
45Fabric Government Regulations Flammable Fabrics Act (1953)Regulates sale of highly flammable fabricsProhibits extremely flammable fabrics
46Fabric Government Regulations Permanent Care Labeling Act (1972)All clothing required to have care instruction labelsSymbols wereintroduced in 1997