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From Fibers to Fabric: Step by step process of the fiber to the yarn to the fabric.
Types of Fibers
Natural Fibers Sources: –Animals –Plants
Manufactured or Synthetic Fibers Chemical or Protein
Name Generic Name Trade Name Spandex Lycra®
Types Acetate Acrylic Nylon Polyester Rayon Spandex Triacetate
Yarns Fibers overlapped and twisted together
Types Spun Monofilament Multifilament
Twist amount varies and increases strength very low twist - just barely holds together low twist - fluffy - weak average twist for short fibers high twist hard and compact
Texture given to manufactured fibers adds bulk, stretch, less static
Types of Texture
Fabric Construction woven of knit yarns fibers matted together and glued
Knits Stretches Returns to Original Shape Wrinkle Resistant
Warp Knits vertical rows of loops - tricot jersey - lace - raschel knit
Weft Knit loops made as yarn added in crosswise direction – double knit – jersey – rib knit – pile knit jersey – velour – purl knit
Non Woven no grain no stretch or give requires special sewing techniques
Fabric Finishes changes fiber properties to create a better product
Permanent Finish heat set improves fabric resistance to wrinkling stains difficult to remove no need to iron
Shrinkage Resistant reduce shrinkage
Soil Release aids in removing dirt, oil, and grease
Flame Retardant resists burning
Dyeing changes color of finished product can be done at fiber, yarn, and fabric stage printing is done at fabric stage only
Care Labels Law Required - Fiber Content - Care Instructions - Country of Origin
Care Requirement washing method drying method bleach type iron temperature
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