Presentation on theme: "4.01 Fashion Merchandising Identify basic textile fibers, fabrics, and their characteristics."— Presentation transcript:
4.01 Fashion Merchandising Identify basic textile fibers, fabrics, and their characteristics.
Part I 1. Fiber Is the basic unit that makes fabric Is the smallest unit in a textile (fabric) Denier is the thickness or diameter of a fiber. 2 Types Natural Fibers Manufactured Fibers
2. Natural Fibers Comes from natural sources, such as plants and animals. Natural fibers derived from plants are cellulosic. Protein fibers are derived from animals or insects. Some natural fibers are: Cotton, Silk, Wool, Flax or Linen, Leather, and Fur
3. Cotton The most widely used of all natural fibers. A soft, white, downy fiber that is strong and durable, cool to wear, and is commonly used in underwear and socks.
4. Silk The fine, lustrous fiber that comes from the cocoon of a worm. An animal fiber.
5. Wool The natural fiber that forms the coat of sheep and is commonly used in coats and blankets. Warmest of all natural fibers. An animal fiber.
6. Flax or Linen Comes from the stem of a flax plant. Linen is made by weaving or knitting flax fiber into fabric.
7. Leather A tough, flexible material made by preserving animal hides through a process called tanning.
8. Fur The soft, hair coat of an animal used primarily for coats, outwear and trimmings.
9. Manufactured Fibers Fibers that are man-made and begin as thick liquids. Created by combining various substances with chemicals. Some manufactured fibers are: Polyester, Nylon, Acetate, Spandex, and Acrylic
10. Polyester A manufactured fiber made from coal or petroleum, often blended with other fibers, and has great washability. Disposable plastic bottles are recycled into polyester fiber and is used to make fabric for t-shirts and filling for pillows.
11. Nylon The first manufactured fiber made totally from chemicals.
12. Acetate A manufactured fiber is silky and luxurious and is often used in neckties and lingerie.
13. Spandex Known for its ability to stretch Easily damaged by chlorine bleach
14. Acrylic Resembles wool Soft and warm
Part II 15. Fabric Construction Yarns are made from fibers twisted together or laid side by side to form a continuous strand. Blends are created by combining different fibers into one yarn
16.Turning Yarn into Fabric Grain: the direction of the lengthwise and crosswise yarns or threads in a woven fabric. Bias: the diagonal grain of a fabric. The bias provides the greatest “give” or stretch in the fabric.
Turning Yarn into Fabric (cont.) Warp yarns: Yarns that run lengthwise in woven fabric. Weft yarns: yarns that run crosswise in woven and knitted fabric.
17. Weaving Interlaces two sets of yarns that are at right angles to each other to make fabric. 3 Basic Types Plain, Twill, and Satin
18. Plain Weave The simplest of all weaves.
19. Twill Weave Creates diagonal ridges on the surface of the fabric resulting in a strong and durable fabric such as denim. Denim is a twill weave.
21. Knitting A method of constructing fabrics by looping yarns together. The number of stitches, or loops, per inch in a knitted fabric is gauge.
22. Nonwoven Fabric Constructed by compacting fibers together using a combination of moisture, heat chemicals, friction, and/or pressure. Felt
Part III 23. Fabric Finishing Finishing - applying colors, design or surface treatments that change the look, feel, or performance of fabric. Mechanical and chemical - the two categories of finishes applied to fabric, yarn or fibers to change the appearance, performance, or feel.
Fabric Finishing (cont.) Bleaching – the chemical process that remove color, impurities, or spots from fibers.