Properties Of Fibres Natural - Plant Cotton: Very absorbent Dries slowly Cool to wear Soft handle Good drape Durable Creases easily Wash and iron Applications Jeans, Towels, T-shirts Linen: Fresh, cool to wear Very absorbent, fast drying Stiffer handle Good drape Durable Creases badly Wash and iron Applications Summer clothing, table cloths etc
Properties Of Fibres Natural -Animal Silk: Warm to wear Absorbent Soft handle Good lustre and drape Durable Creases drop out Dry clean Applications Eveningwear, ties Wool: Warm to wear Absorbent, dries slowly Breathable, repels rain Soft or coarse handle Can shrink, dry clean Good drape Not durable Creases drop out Applications Suits, Jumpers, Blankets Carpets
Man-Made Fibres Can Be … Synthetic Made from chemicals Or Regenerated Made from natural resources (Trees) mixed with chemicals
Properties Of Fibres Synthetic Fibres Nylon Absorbs little water except when texturing provides capillary action Very Strong & resistant to wear Crease resistant Resistant to alkalis, solvents and moulds – but can be attacked by acid Affected by static electricity which attracts dirt and affects drape Polyester Strong Hardwearing Crease resistant Unaffected by most acids, alkali, and solvents Easy to care for Resistant to staining Not very absorbent
Blending Fibres Blending fibres together gives the advantage of both, or all, fibres used to the fabric produced Reasons For Blending Fibres Quality Improvements Performance in use Clothing Comfort Improved After Care Appearance Optical effects e.g. lustre, colour, fancy yarn Profitability Improved Cost Efficiency
Fibre to Yarn A fibre is the smallest part of the yarn you can pull out of a jumper! There are 2 main types of fibre:
Yarn to Fabric: Weaving Knitting Felting / Bonded Fabrics
Weaving Fabric A loom is used to weave fabric. The vertical yarns or warp yarns are connected to the loom. This weaver in Mali, West Africa, is using a hand loom to produce strips of cotton cloth, which will then be sewn together and dyed. Then weft yarns are threaded alternatively over and under the warp yarns to produce the fabric. The edges that do not fray are called the selvidge This method produces plain weave.
Alternative Weaves Plain Weave – this is a simple weave with the weft going over and under alternate warp yarns Twill Weave – this is gives a diagonal appearance. The weft yarn runs over & under between 2 & 4 yarns. Denim is an example of a twill weave Satin Weave – this is gives a smooth and often shiny ( high lustre) finish. The weft yarns run over & under a large number of warps
Knitted Fabrics - There are two types of knitted fabrics. Both processes work by forming interlocking loops of yarn. Weft knitting is when the loops run across the fabric. Weft knitting can be constructed by hand and will unravel if the yarn is broken. The most common example of weft knitting is jersey. Warp knitting is when the loops run vertically. This is constructed using a machine and produces a sturdier fabric. This method hardly ever ladders and keeps its shape..
Felting is a quick and cheap method of producing fabric. A combination of pressure, moisture and heat is used to form the fibres into fabric. Felt is not very strong but will not fray when cut. It can be formed (steamed) into shapes without the need for seams. Bonding is another method of producing non-woven fabric. The fibres are bonded together by using stitching or adhesive. Laminating is when a number of fabrics are bonded together. Woven, knitted, felted or bonded fabrics can be combined to produce a fabric with a mixture of properties. Non-woven Fabrics