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Textile Fabrics and Finishes

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Presentation on theme: "Textile Fabrics and Finishes"— Presentation transcript:

1 Textile Fabrics and Finishes

2 Objectives: Identify most common fabric constructions
Describe main fabric finishing procedures Recognize importance of quality and performance standards Summarize aspects of the textile industry Explain how fabrics are sold down the chain Cite textile industry trade information Tell about future predictions for textiles

3 Fabric Design and Construction
Two forms of design Structural Design “Building in” texture or interest during manufacturing process Weaving and knitting most common Applied Design Adding color, pattern, or other features to the structural design Printing on fabric

4 Fabric Construction Methods
Weaving Plain: crosshatch pattern Twill: diagonal wale Satin: floating yarns Knitting Weft Warp Nonwoven Fused Felted Films

5 Fabric Terms Grain – direction yarns run in the fabric Selvage SELVAGE
Lengthwise - warp Crosswise - weft Diagonal - bias Selvage “Finished” weft edge of fabric SELVAGE WARP WEFT BIAS SELVAGE CUT EDGE

6 Variations of Weaves Stripes Checks Plaids Jacquard Pile fabrics
Terry cloth Corduroy Velvet

7 Knitting Looping yarn together Made using one yarn
Built-in stretch Wrinkle resistant Does not ravel like woven material, but may run Weft (filling) stretches in both directions Warp stretches one direction; run-proof

8 Nonwoven Fabrics Compact web of fibers (not yarns) constructed using
Moisture Heat Chemicals Friction Pressure No grain

9 Other Construction Methods
Laces and Nets Made by knotting Decorative trim Braids Decorative trims Bonded fabrics Fusible web Interfacing and hem tape Quilted fabrics

10 Fabric Finishing Converters
Mills that change greige goods into finished fabrics Applying colors, designs, or surface treatments Bleaching Dyeing Printing Finishes

11 Dyeing Fiber Adding color to fibers before spinning into yarns Yarn
Placing yarns in dye bath before making into fabric Piece Fabrics dyed after weaving or knitting Garment Dyed after construction

12 Printing Adding color, pattern, or design to surface of fabric
Overall prints Same across fabric Directional prints Specific direction to pattern Plaids Even - same in warp and weft Uneven - different in warp or weft

13 Printing Methods Heat Transfer Roller Screen Digital Rotary Screen
Design on printed paper transferred to fabric by heat and pressure Digital Computer method uses ink-jet printing Flocking Fibers attached by patterned glue Roller Applies color design by roller Screen Similar to stenciling Rotary Screen Applies color design by cylinder-shaped nylon screens

14 Fabric Finishes Mechanical finishes affect size and appearance
By heat, moisture, stretching, singeing Example: preshrinking Chemical finishes affect performance Permanent press Waterproof Water repellent Flame resistant Antistatic Stain and soil resistant

15 Standards Quality Performance
Rate textiles according to levels of defects Performance Rate textiles for specific end-use suitability

16 The Textile Industry Specialized companies perform stages of the textile segment of the chain Technology necessary CAD/CAM Fashion Tracking designs, trends, forecasts Marketing Planning, pricing, promoting, distributing

17 Selling Finished Fabrics
Staple fabrics Sold each year with little or no change in construction Novelty fabrics Fashion fabrics that change with style trends Overruns When a mill makes more fabric than was ordered by customers

18 Trade Information TEXTILES
American Textile Manufacturers Institute, Inc. (ATMI) Industry-wide marketing, government relations, trade policies American Printed Fabrics Council, Inc. (APFC) Printing achievements American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) Wet processing aspects TEXTILES

19 Future of Textiles Continued U.S. innovation
Stay internationally competitive Update plants Continued automation Flexibility and versatility for shorter production runs of different fabrics Increased knit production Textile firms need more sophisticated marketing techniques

20 Do You Know . . . A finishing term that ends in “proof” means complete protection (as in waterproof). Hand is the term used for textiles that refers to the way fabrics feel to the touch. Hand may apply to drape, softness, firmness, crispness, or elasticity.

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