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Textile Fabrics and Finishes. Objectives: Identify most common fabric constructions Describe main fabric finishing procedures Recognize importance of.

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Presentation on theme: "Textile Fabrics and Finishes. Objectives: Identify most common fabric constructions Describe main fabric finishing procedures Recognize importance of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Textile Fabrics and Finishes

2 Objectives: Identify most common fabric constructions Describe main fabric finishing procedures Recognize importance of quality and performance standards Summarize aspects of the textile industry Explain how fabrics are sold down the chain Cite textile industry trade information Tell about future predictions for textiles

3 Fabric Design and Construction Two forms of design   Structural Design   “Building in” texture or interest during manufacturing process   Weaving and knitting most common   Applied Design   Adding color, pattern, or other features to the structural design   Printing on fabric

4 Fabric Construction Methods Weaving  Plain: crosshatch pattern  Twill: diagonal wale  Satin: floating yarns Knitting  Weft  Warp Nonwoven  Fused  Felted  Films

5 Fabric Terms Grain – direction yarns run in the fabric   Lengthwise - warp   Crosswise - weft   Diagonal - bias Selvage   “Finished” weft edge of fabric SELVAGE BIAS WARP WEFT CUT EDGE

6 Variations of Weaves Stripes Checks Plaids Jacquard Pile fabrics  Terry cloth  Corduroy  Velvet

7 Knitting Looping yarn together Made using one yarn   Built-in stretch   Wrinkle resistant   Does not ravel like woven material, but may run Weft (filling) stretches in both directions Warp stretches one direction; run-proof

8 Nonwoven Fabrics Compact web of fibers (not yarns) constructed using  Moisture  Heat  Chemicals  Friction  Pressure No grain

9 Other Construction Methods Laces and Nets   Made by knotting   Decorative trim Braids   Decorative trims Bonded fabrics Fusible web   Interfacing and hem tape Quilted fabrics

10 Fabric Finishing Converters  Mills that change greige goods into finished fabrics Applying colors, designs, or surface treatments  Bleaching  Dyeing  Printing  Finishes

11 Dyeing Fiber   Adding color to fibers before spinning into yarns Yarn   Placing yarns in dye bath before making into fabric Piece   Fabrics dyed after weaving or knitting Garment   Dyed after construction

12 Printing Adding color, pattern, or design to surface of fabric Overall prints  Same across fabric Directional prints  Specific direction to pattern Plaids  Even - same in warp and weft  Uneven - different in warp or weft

13 Printing Methods Roller   Applies color design by roller Screen   Similar to stenciling Rotary Screen   Applies color design by cylinder- shaped nylon screens Heat Transfer  Design on printed paper transferred to fabric by heat and pressure Digital  Computer method uses ink-jet printing Flocking  Fibers attached by patterned glue

14 Fabric Finishes Mechanical finishes affect size and appearance  By heat, moisture, stretching, singeing  Example: preshrinking Chemical finishes affect performance  Permanent press  Waterproof  Water repellent  Flame resistant  Antistatic  Stain and soil resistant

15 Standards Quality   Rate textiles according to levels of defects Performance   Rate textiles for specific end-use suitability

16 The Textile Industry Specialized companies perform stages of the textile segment of the chain Technology necessary  CAD/CAM Fashion  Tracking designs, trends, forecasts Marketing  Planning, pricing, promoting, distributing

17 Selling Finished Fabrics Staple fabrics   Sold each year with little or no change in construction Novelty fabrics   Fashion fabrics that change with style trends Overruns   When a mill makes more fabric than was ordered by customers

18 Trade Information American Textile Manufacturers Institute, Inc. (ATMI)  Industry-wide marketing, government relations, trade policies American Printed Fabrics Council, Inc. (APFC)  Printing achievements American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC)  Wet processing aspects

19 Future of Textiles Continued U.S. innovation Stay internationally competitive   Update plants   Continued automation   Flexibility and versatility for shorter production runs of different fabrics Increased knit production Textile firms need more sophisticated marketing techniques

20 Do You Know... A finishing term that ends in “proof” means complete protection (as in waterproof). Hand is the term used for textiles that refers to the way fabrics feel to the touch. Hand may apply to drape, softness, firmness, crispness, or elasticity.


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