Presentation on theme: "How fabric is made. Fabric starts with the fibers Black Alpaca SilkBaby fine camel hair Silk Cotton Dyed Wool."— Presentation transcript:
How fabric is made
Fabric starts with the fibers Black Alpaca SilkBaby fine camel hair Silk Cotton Dyed Wool
Types of Fiber Natural Synthetic
Natural Fibers Come from plants and animals General Characteristics Hydrophilic (Absorb Water) Most wrinkle easily Aren’t completely uniform in look and quality, because they are affected by weather, nutrients in the soil, insects, and disease. Price continues to increase because of limited supply.
Natural Fibers Cotton Flax (Linen) Wool Silk
Cotton advantages Mildews Does not spring back into shape Wrinkles easily Burns readily Shrinks Strong, durable Soft Absorbs moisture Breathes well Washes easily Low cost Comfortable Cotton Disadvantages
Care of Cotton Wash in washer and dry Iron at high temperature
Linen (Flax) Disadvantages STRONG, stronger than cotton & even stronger when wet Absorbs moisture Comfortable in warm weather Washes easily Nice texture Linen (Flax) Advantages Mildews WRINKLES Burns easily Difficult to process Not very elastic and will break if folded over and over in the same place
Care of Linen Wash or Dry Clean, CHECK LABEL Iron at HIGH temperature
Wool Advantages WARM Durable ABSORBENT Resilient (returns to original shape quickly) Resists wrinkling Fire Retardant Can keep you cool or warm Does not soil easily Wool Disadvantages Requires special care Shrinks sometimes if washed, or dried in dryer Absorbs odors Requires protection against insects More expensive, so often blended with other fibers
Care of Wool Dry Clean or Hand Wash and Dry flat Iron at low temperature
Silk Advantages Soft and Smooth Lustrous and Luxurious Strong Doesn’t wrinkle easily Drapes well Dyes well Silk Advantages Shows water spots Sensitive to sunlight and can yellow More expensive
Synthetic Fibers Made from petrochemicals Many made to resemble natural fibers at lower costs Characteristics Hydrophobic (water resistant) Promote static cling Heat Sensitive Many pill Most are wrinkle resistant Must press at low temperatures
Synthetic Fibers Acetate Acrylic Nylon Polyester Rayon Spandex (Lycra)
Polyester Excellent WRINKLE RESISTANCE Resistant to abrasion Dries quickly Blends well with other fibers Retains heat-set pleats and creases Absorbs oily stains Low absorbency of moisture Easily laundered Needs little or no pressing
Nylon Very Strong Resilient Lustrous Dries quickly May yellow or gray Heat Sensitive Low moisture absorbency Easily laundered Iron at low temperature Blend well with other fibers Melts
Acrylic Soft, Warm Wool-like Light weight Wrinkle resistant Resistant to moths and sunlight Pills Static electricity Heat sensitive Usually dry clean, iron at low temp.
Rayon Made from wood pulp Made to resemble cotton or silk Soft and comfortable High moisture absorbency Drapeable May wrinkle or shrink unless treated May mildew Usually dry cleaned, sometimes washable Iron at low temperature
Spandex Excellent elasticity and recovery Stronger and more durable than rubber Light weight Resistant to body oils Damaged by chlorine bleach Damaged by heat
Acetate Silk look-alike Used in formal wear Soft, Drapeable Dries quickly Resistant to shrinking Not very strong Can wrinkle Low abrasion resistance Heat sensitive Damaged by acetone
Once the fiber is collected, the fiber is spun into yarns Yarn – made by spinning or twisting fibers together Blended Yarn – often times yarn is made by more than one type of fiber. They are blended to get the best qualities from each.
After the fiber is made into yarns the fabric is woven, knit or pressed into fabric
Fabric Construction Woven – interlocking yarns in an over-under pattern Knit – interlocking loops Non-woven – fibers are pressed together in no specific pattern.
Woven Fabric Woven fabric made by a process of interlacing yarns to create cloth or fabric.
Parts of a woven fabric 1. Bias – the stretchiest direction of the fabric. Diagonal line between lengthwise and crosswise grains. 2. Selvage – tightly woven edge. Looks different than the rest of the fabric. 3. Warp Yarns/Lengthwise grain – strongest direction of fabric because those yarns are placed on the loom first. Least amount of stretch. Parallel to the selvage. 4. Weft yarns/Crosswise grain – a little less strong than warp because these are the yarns that are woven in. A little more stretch than warp. Perpendicular to warp and selvage.
Plain Weave Over one, Under one
Twill Weave Forms a pattern of diagonal ribs
Basket Weave A variation of a plain weave. Over two, under two. Usually use two or more warp yarns.
Satin Weave No definite pattern, passes over more threads to give it a lustrous, silk-like appearance
Pile Weave A third set of yarn is added in to make knots and add texture
Knit Fabric Knits are made by a series of interlocking loops.
Knits Stretches Returns to Original Shape Wrinkle Resistant
Warp Knits vertical rows of loops
Weft Knits loops made as yarn added in crosswise direction
Non Woven fibers are pressed together in one big mass no grain no stretch or give requires special sewing techniques
Non Wovens -Felt -Babies disposable diapers -sterile wraps, caps, gowns, masks and drapings used in the medical field -wall coverings -Vinyl (leather look- alikes)