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How fabric is made.

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Presentation on theme: "How fabric is made."— Presentation transcript:

1 How fabric is made

2 Fabric starts with the fibers
Black Alpaca Silk Baby fine camel hair Dyed Wool Silk Cotton

3 Types of Fiber Natural Synthetic

4 Natural Fibers Come from plants and animals General Characteristics
Hydrophilic (Absorb Water) Most wrinkle easily Aren’t completely uniform in look and quality, because they are affected by weather, nutrients in the soil, insects, and disease. Price continues to increase because of limited supply.

5 Natural Fibers Cotton Flax (Linen) Wool Silk

6 Cotton advantages Cotton Disadvantages
Mildews Does not spring back into shape Wrinkles easily Burns readily Shrinks Strong, durable Soft Absorbs moisture Breathes well Washes easily Low cost Comfortable

7 Care of Cotton Wash in washer and dry Iron at high temperature

8 Linen (Flax) Disadvantages
Linen (Flax) Advantages Linen (Flax) Disadvantages STRONG, stronger than cotton & even stronger when wet Absorbs moisture Comfortable in warm weather Washes easily Nice texture Mildews WRINKLES Burns easily Difficult to process Not very elastic and will break if folded over and over in the same place

9 Care of Linen Wash or Dry Clean, CHECK LABEL Iron at HIGH temperature

10 Wool Disadvantages Wool Advantages
WARM Durable ABSORBENT Resilient (returns to original shape quickly) Resists wrinkling Fire Retardant Can keep you cool or warm Does not soil easily Requires special care Shrinks sometimes if washed, or dried in dryer Absorbs odors Requires protection against insects More expensive, so often blended with other fibers

11 Care of Wool Dry Clean or Hand Wash and Dry flat
Iron at low temperature

12 Silk Advantages Silk Advantages
Soft and Smooth Lustrous and Luxurious Strong Doesn’t wrinkle easily Drapes well Dyes well Shows water spots Sensitive to sunlight and can yellow More expensive

13 Synthetic Fibers Made from petrochemicals
Many made to resemble natural fibers at lower costs Characteristics Hydrophobic (water resistant) Promote static cling Heat Sensitive Many pill Most are wrinkle resistant Must press at low temperatures

14 Synthetic Fibers Acetate Acrylic Nylon Polyester Rayon Spandex (Lycra)

15 Polyester Excellent WRINKLE RESISTANCE Resistant to abrasion
Dries quickly Blends well with other fibers Retains heat-set pleats and creases Absorbs oily stains Low absorbency of moisture Easily laundered Needs little or no pressing

16 Nylon Very Strong Resilient Lustrous Dries quickly May yellow or gray
Heat Sensitive Low moisture absorbency Easily laundered Iron at low temperature Blend well with other fibers Melts

17 Acrylic Soft, Warm Wool-like Light weight Wrinkle resistant
Resistant to moths and sunlight Pills Static electricity Heat sensitive Usually dry clean, iron at low temp.

18 Rayon Made from wood pulp Made to resemble cotton or silk
Soft and comfortable High moisture absorbency Drapeable May wrinkle or shrink unless treated May mildew Usually dry cleaned, sometimes washable Iron at low temperature

19 Spandex Excellent elasticity and recovery
Stronger and more durable than rubber Light weight Resistant to body oils Damaged by chlorine bleach Damaged by heat

20 Acetate Silk look-alike Used in formal wear Soft, Drapeable
Dries quickly Resistant to shrinking Not very strong Can wrinkle Low abrasion resistance Heat sensitive Damaged by acetone

21 Once the fiber is collected, the fiber is spun into yarns
Yarn – made by spinning or twisting fibers together Blended Yarn – often times yarn is made by more than one type of fiber. They are blended to get the best qualities from each.

22 After the fiber is made into yarns the fabric is woven, knit or pressed into fabric

23 Fabric Construction Woven – interlocking yarns in an over-under pattern Knit – interlocking loops Non-woven – fibers are pressed together in no specific pattern. The yarns are then made into fabric, they are either woven or knit together,or the fibers are matted together and glued.

24 Woven Fabrics Woven Fabrics have different types of weaves.

25 Woven Fabric Woven fabric made by a process of interlacing yarns to create cloth or fabric.

26 Parts of a woven fabric 1. Bias – the stretchiest direction of the fabric. Diagonal line between lengthwise and crosswise grains. 2. Selvage – tightly woven edge. Looks different than the rest of the fabric. 3. Warp Yarns/Lengthwise grain – strongest direction of fabric because those yarns are placed on the loom first. Least amount of stretch. Parallel to the selvage. 4. Weft yarns/Crosswise grain – a little less strong than warp because these are the yarns that are woven in. A little more stretch than warp. Perpendicular to warp and selvage.

27 Plain Weave Over one, Under one The first type is plain weave.
Characteristics Fairly strong Easy to sew Examples Shirts Dresses

28 Twill Weave Forms a pattern of diagonal ribs 3rd is Twill Weave
Characteristics Fairly strong Wrinkle resistant Hides Soil Examples Denim Gabardine

29 Basket Weave A variation of a plain weave. Over two, under two. Usually use two or more warp yarns. 4th is Basket Weave Characteristics Variation of Plain Weave Examples Oxford Monks Cloth

30 Satin Weave No definite pattern, passes over more threads to give it a lustrous, silk-like appearance Next is Satin Weave Characteristics Snags Less Durable Wrinkles Shows Stains Hard to Sew With Examples Dressy Blouse Fancy Dresses

31 A third set of yarn is added in to make knots and add texture
Pile Weave A third set of yarn is added in to make knots and add texture

32 Knit Fabric Knits are made by a series of interlocking loops.

33 Returns to Original Shape
Knits Stretches Returns to Original Shape Wrinkle Resistant The next way fabric is created is by knitting. .Characteristics .stretches .returns to original shape .wrinkle resistant .Examples .T shirt .Active wear Knit has 2 different types though.

34 Warp Knits vertical rows of loops

35 loops made as yarn added in crosswise direction
Weft Knits loops made as yarn added in crosswise direction

36 Non Woven fibers are pressed together in one big mass no grain
no stretch or give requires special sewing techniques Then the last type of fabric is non woven. This is where the fibers are matted together and glued. .Characteristics .no grain .no stretch or give .requires special sewing techniques .

37 Non Wovens Felt Babies disposable diapers
sterile wraps, caps, gowns, masks and drapings used in the medical field wall coverings Vinyl (leather look-alikes) Here are some examples of Non Wovens. Examples .interfacing .diapers (pictured) .hospital gowns (pictured) and sheets .cleaning cloths .felt (pictured)

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