4Natural Fibers Come from plants and animals General Characteristics Hydrophilic (Absorb Water)Most wrinkle easilyAren’t completely uniform in look and quality, because they are affected by weather, nutrients in the soil, insects, and disease.Price continues to increase because of limited supply.
6Cotton advantages Cotton Disadvantages MildewsDoes not spring back into shapeWrinkles easilyBurns readilyShrinksStrong, durableSoftAbsorbs moistureBreathes wellWashes easilyLow costComfortable
7Care of CottonWash in washer and dryIron at high temperature
8Linen (Flax) Disadvantages Linen (Flax) AdvantagesLinen (Flax) DisadvantagesSTRONG, stronger than cotton & even stronger when wetAbsorbs moistureComfortable in warm weatherWashes easilyNice textureMildewsWRINKLESBurns easilyDifficult to processNot very elastic and will break if folded over and over in the same place
9Care of LinenWash or Dry Clean, CHECK LABELIron at HIGH temperature
10Wool Disadvantages Wool Advantages WARMDurableABSORBENTResilient (returns to original shape quickly)Resists wrinklingFire RetardantCan keep you cool or warmDoes not soil easilyRequires special careShrinks sometimes if washed, or dried in dryerAbsorbs odorsRequires protection against insectsMore expensive, so often blended with other fibers
11Care of Wool Dry Clean or Hand Wash and Dry flat Iron at low temperature
12Silk Advantages Silk Advantages Soft and SmoothLustrous and LuxuriousStrongDoesn’t wrinkle easilyDrapes wellDyes wellShows water spotsSensitive to sunlight and can yellowMore expensive
13Synthetic Fibers Made from petrochemicals Many made to resemble natural fibers at lower costsCharacteristicsHydrophobic (water resistant)Promote static clingHeat SensitiveMany pillMost are wrinkle resistantMust press at low temperatures
15Polyester Excellent WRINKLE RESISTANCE Resistant to abrasion Dries quicklyBlends well with other fibersRetains heat-set pleats and creasesAbsorbs oily stainsLow absorbency of moistureEasily launderedNeeds little or no pressing
16Nylon Very Strong Resilient Lustrous Dries quickly May yellow or gray Heat SensitiveLow moisture absorbencyEasily launderedIron at low temperatureBlend well with other fibersMelts
17Acrylic Soft, Warm Wool-like Light weight Wrinkle resistant Resistant to moths and sunlightPillsStatic electricityHeat sensitiveUsually dry clean, iron at low temp.
18Rayon Made from wood pulp Made to resemble cotton or silk Soft and comfortableHigh moisture absorbencyDrapeableMay wrinkle or shrink unless treatedMay mildewUsually dry cleaned, sometimes washableIron at low temperature
19Spandex Excellent elasticity and recovery Stronger and more durable than rubberLight weightResistant to body oilsDamaged by chlorine bleachDamaged by heat
20Acetate Silk look-alike Used in formal wear Soft, Drapeable Dries quicklyResistant to shrinkingNot very strongCan wrinkleLow abrasion resistanceHeat sensitiveDamaged by acetone
21Once the fiber is collected, the fiber is spun into yarns Yarn – made by spinning or twisting fibers togetherBlended Yarn – often times yarn is made by more than one type of fiber. They are blended to get the best qualities from each.
22After the fiber is made into yarns the fabric is woven, knit or pressed into fabric
23Fabric ConstructionWoven – interlocking yarns in an over-under patternKnit – interlocking loopsNon-woven – fibers are pressed together in no specific pattern.The yarns are then made into fabric, they are either woven or knit together,or the fibers are matted together and glued.
24Woven FabricsWoven Fabrics have different types of weaves.
25Woven FabricWoven fabric made by a process of interlacing yarns to create cloth or fabric.
26Parts of a woven fabric1. Bias – the stretchiest direction of the fabric. Diagonal line between lengthwise and crosswise grains.2. Selvage – tightly woven edge. Looks different than the rest of the fabric.3. Warp Yarns/Lengthwise grain – strongest direction of fabric because those yarns are placed on the loom first. Least amount of stretch. Parallel to the selvage.4. Weft yarns/Crosswise grain – a little less strong than warp because these are the yarns that are woven in. A little more stretch than warp. Perpendicular to warp and selvage.
27Plain Weave Over one, Under one The first type is plain weave. CharacteristicsFairly strongEasy to sewExamplesShirtsDresses
28Twill Weave Forms a pattern of diagonal ribs 3rd is Twill Weave CharacteristicsFairly strongWrinkle resistantHides SoilExamplesDenimGabardine
29Basket WeaveA variation of a plain weave. Over two, under two. Usually use two or more warp yarns.4th is Basket WeaveCharacteristicsVariation of Plain WeaveExamplesOxfordMonks Cloth
30Satin WeaveNo definite pattern, passes over more threads to give it a lustrous, silk-like appearanceNext is Satin WeaveCharacteristicsSnagsLess DurableWrinklesShows StainsHard to Sew WithExamplesDressy BlouseFancy Dresses
31A third set of yarn is added in to make knots and add texture Pile WeaveA third set of yarn is added in to make knots and add texture
32Knit FabricKnits are made by a series of interlocking loops.
33Returns to Original Shape KnitsStretchesReturns to Original ShapeWrinkle ResistantThe next way fabric is created is by knitting..Characteristics.stretches.returns to original shape.wrinkle resistant.Examples.T shirt.Active wearKnit has 2 different types though.
35loops made as yarn added in crosswise direction Weft Knitsloops made as yarn added in crosswise direction
36Non Woven fibers are pressed together in one big mass no grain no stretch or giverequires special sewing techniquesThen the last type of fabric is non woven. This is where the fibers are matted together and glued..Characteristics.no grain.no stretch or give.requires special sewing techniques.
37Non Wovens Felt Babies disposable diapers sterile wraps, caps, gowns, masks and drapings used in the medical fieldwall coveringsVinyl (leather look-alikes)Here are some examples of Non Wovens.Examples.interfacing.diapers (pictured).hospital gowns (pictured) and sheets.cleaning cloths.felt (pictured)