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Chapter 5 Textile Fiber and Fabric Production. Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 Textile Fiber and Fabric Production. Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 Textile Fiber and Fabric Production

2 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Textile Fiber and Fabric Production Textiles is a broad term referring to any material that can be made into fabric by any method. Fibers are hair-like materials, either natural or manufactured, that form the basic element of fabric and other textiles.

3 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Natural Fiber Production Natural fibers are derived from either plants or animals. Cotton is the worlds’ leading textile fiber, comprising about 41 percent of world fiber production. Flax is the base component of linen, which makes up less than 1 percent of the world fiber production. Ramie is a vegetable fiber stronger than flax, often combined with cotton to soften it. Wool fiber is a renewable source from animals, representing 2 percent of world fiber production.

4 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Natural Fiber Production Silk, associated with the finest garments accounts for.2 percent of world fiber production. All natural fibers except silk are short staple lengths. Silk is a long filament.

5 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Man-made Fibers Rayon, or viscose, was patented in Synthetics denotes all chemically produced fibers. All man-made fibers start as long filaments Production takes place in large chemical companies who leverage mass production techniques. Over 50% of world fiber production is man made now, as compared to 22% in 1960.

6 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Man-made Fibers Regenerated cellulose fibers are derived principally from wood pulp. –Rayon, the first man-made fiber is composed of regenerated cellulose. –Lycoell is a new solvent spun cellulosic fiber produced, like rayon, from wood pulp. –Acetate and triacetate are alternatives to rayon.

7 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Man-made Fibers Synthetic fibers are made from derivatives of petroleum, coal, and natural gas. –Nylon, polyester and acrylic are long chain polymers. –Spandex, can stretch 300 to 400 percent without breaking and return to its original length. –Polypropylene is an olefin made from polymers and can be used for moisture transport in high tech active wear garments.

8 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Textile Yarn and Fiber Producers Approximately 4,600 apparel related textile plants employ 432,000 people domestically. Textile mills produce yarns and fabrics. Converters do only the finishing stages of production.

9 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Yarn Production Yarn production is the next step after fiber production. Filament yarns are continuous, smoother, shinier and more uniform than spun yarns. Spun yarns are either natural fibers other than silk or cut man-made fibers.

10 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Fabric Production Fabric is the material or cloth made from natural or man-made yarns using one of the following methods: –Weaving, layering warp and fill yarns, with three basic types of weaves: Plain Twill Satin –Knitting, with one continuous yarn broken into two kinds of knits: Weft Warp –Nonwoven fabrics where yarns are bonded or interlocked using mechanical, chemical, thermal, hydro or solvent.

11 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Dyeing Some of the most important dyeing methods are: –Producer, used for man-made fibers still in the solution. –Stock, loose fibers before yarn processing. –Yarn, used to dye certain woven patterns before weaving or knitting. –Piece, dyeing a piece of fabric after weaving or knitting. –Cross, an inexpensive way to achieve two color patterns. –Garment, after the entire garment has been made.

12 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Printing Applies design to fabrics via either wet or dry techniques. Wet, where dyestuffs are applied wet for optimum color penetration. –Engraved roller printing –Screen printing Flatbed Rotary screen Dry, where either heat transfer or paper printing techniques are used.

13 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Finishing The process used to enhance a fabric usually after dyeing or printing They can be physical: –Calendaring, the passing of fabric between heavy rollers for various effects –Heat setting, to stabilize man-made fabrics –Napping, to raise surfaces –Shearing, to create uniform surface –Sanding or sueding, to create a soft surface –Shrink control, or preshrinking

14 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Finishing Or Chemical: –Caustic reduction to give polyester a silk like feel –Decatizing to stabilize wool fabrics –Durable press, or permanent press –Mercerizing to give cotton a lustrous silk like finish –Water repellency

15 Fashion From Concept to Consumer, 8/e© 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Gini Frings Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Environmental Concerns Encouraging Environmental Excellence, or E3, is a program urging producers to protect the environment. Decreased water use and chemical waste is the goal American and European textile companies have difficulty competing against Asian mills where producers do not pay to clean up the environment. Domestic manufacturers want to require imported textile products to be made under the same environmental standards to ensure fair competition and ensure a clean environment worldwide.


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