Presentation on theme: "Fibres All fabrics are made from tiny hair like structures called fibres. They are either staple(short) or Filament (long ) fibres. There are three main."— Presentation transcript:
Fibres All fabrics are made from tiny hair like structures called fibres. They are either staple(short) or Filament (long ) fibres. There are three main groups of fibres Animal like wool, silk, alpaca Plants like cotton, linen. Synthetic fibres are man-made from the by products of oil. Like acrylic. Regenerated fibres are made from a combination of chemicals and cellulose waste. Like viscose, modal
Yarns Individual fibres are weak but if you put them together and make a yarn they become much stronger. Yarns are made by spinning and twisting fibres together. The worsted system produces smooth yarn Whilst the woollen spinning system produces a more hairy yarn.
Yarns Fibres can be spun in one of two ways. S twist-anticlockwise Z twist-clock wise. These long lengths are wound onto spools or cones. There are many different types of yarn including spun, folded, plied, complex and fancy. Bulk yarns are heavier and chunkier and are often used for hats scarves and sweaters.
Knitted Fabrics Knitted fabrics are made by forming the yarn into loops. These loops are elastic and the fabric is therefore stretchy. Further elasticity can be added through elastane. Knitted fabrics are warm and this can be improved by brushing the fabric as in a fleece.
Types of knit Weft knits Have horizontal rows of knitted yarn. Have horizontal ribs on the wrong side Have v shaped loops Have interlocking loops above and below each row. Examples include polyester fleece fabrics, single jersey like in T shirts. Warp knits Have interlocking loops or chain vertically up and down the fabric Can only be machine made Are less elastic and tend to be firmer fabric Keep their shape and don't usually ladder when cut Include lightweight fabrics like net and lace.
Woven Fabrics Woven fabrics are constructed from interlocking threads or yarns. They are made on a weaving loom. Woven fabrics are made up of Weft yarns which run horizontally Warp yarns which run vertically Woven fabrics – Fray easily Are strongest along the straight grain of the fabric Lack elasticity Are stronger and firmer the closer the weave. Woven fabrics have a Selvedge –an edge that will not fray Bias-a diagonal or cross grain.