2 Fabric: Characteristics and Properties Fabric is made from yarns, which in turn are made from fibres. To make different types of fabrics the yarns are joined together in different ways.Yarns are made by spinning the fibres together.
3 Fabric: Characteristics and Properties There are three types of fabricsWovenFibres and yarns are interlaced atright anglesKnittedFibres and yarns are interloopedeg jumpers,swimmers, stockingsNon-WovenFibres and yarns are bonded togethereg chux cleaning cloths, felt, the disposal hatswe wear in food technology
4 Woven Fabrics Woven fabrics are produced by the process of weaving. Weaving is the interlacing of two or more yarns, using a loom.The machine that is used to weave fabrics is called a LOOMThe width of the loom determines the width of the fabric. The 3 widths that you usually buy fabric in is 90cm, 112 (or 115 cm) and 150 cm
5 Woven Fabric Structure Warp Yarn:Yarns that go down the length of the fabric - parallel to the selvedgeWeft Yarn:Yarns that go across the woven fabric- perpendicular to the selvedgeSelvedge:The woven edge of woven fabric thatdoes not frayTry tugging a piece of fabric in either direction - it sounds different. This is how you can work out the warp and weft when the sevedge has been removed. The warp direction has less ‘give’. Fold the fabric diagonally and pull it - it is very stretchy.This is called the bias or across the grain.
6 Plain WeaveThe plain weave is the simplest weave. The weft yarn is passed under one and over one warp yarn at a time.Properties:Durability (lasts a long time)StrengthLow Luster (shine)Frays easilyFabric Types:OrganzaLinenCalicoPoplin
7 Twill WeaveIn a twill weave the weft yarn goes over two and then under two warp yarns, making a diagonal pattern on the surface of the fabric.Properties:Durability (lasts a long time)StrengthInsulating (helps to keep us warm)Low elasticityFabric Types:DenimCotton Drill
8 Satin WeaveIn a Satin weave the weft yarn travels over three or four warp yarns and then under on warp yarn. This pattern forms long lengths of yarn on the surface of the fabric known as ‘floats’ because they float over the surface.Properties:Lustre (shine)SmoothWeakFabric Types:Satin