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Fashion Design Fibers & Fabrics 1Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

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Presentation on theme: "Fashion Design Fibers & Fabrics 1Copyright © Texas Education Agency, 2012. All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fashion Design Fibers & Fabrics 1Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission.

2 Fiber – Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 2 Fabric – A natural or synthetic filament that can be spun into yarn. A cloth made by weaving, knitting, or felting fibers.

3 Natural Fibers – Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 3 Fibers derived from plants or animals: Cotton Silk Wool Mohair Cashmere Linen Silk Ramie Bamboo Hemp

4 Synthetic Fibers – Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 4 Fibers created by extruding fiber forming materials through spinnerets into the air forming a filament: Polyester Nylon Acrylic Metallic Spandex Olefin Synthetic fibers are also referred to as man-made or manufactured fibers. They are most commonly made from petroleum-based products.

5 Cellulose Fibers – Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 5 Natural Cellulose Fibers – fibers that are still recognizable as being from the original plant because they are only processed as much as needed to be cleaned for use. Examples of natural cellulose fibers: LinenSilkCotton ModalLyocellRayon Manufactured Cellulose Fibers – plant fibers that are processed into pulp and extruded in the same manner as synthetic fibers. Examples of manufactured cellulose fibers:

6 Woven Fabric – Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 6 Woven fabrics are composed of two sets of yarns, the warp and the weft. Cloth is created by weaving the warp and the weft over and under one another. The manner in which the warp and weft are woven over and under one another determines the weave of the fabric. There are five basic weaves: Plain, Basket, Twill, Satin, Jacquard Woven fabric only stretches on the bias unless it is made from elastic fibers. Woven fabric frays unless hemmed or treated with pinking shears.

7 Warp & Weft Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 7 The warp yarns run the length of the fabric. The weft yarns, also called the fill, run perpendicular to the warp yarns. Plain Weave. Wikimedia Commons, 2007.

8 Plain Weave Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 8 Plain Weave. Wikimedia Commons, Plain weave is a simple over-under pattern. It can be identified by its checkered appearance. Examples of plain weave fabrics: Poplin Organza Chiffon Taffeta Grosgrain

9 Basket Weave Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 9 Basket Weave. Wikimedia Commons, Basket Weave is a variation of plain weave. It is a simple over-under pattern created with an equal number of warp and weft yarns woven as a group. The image shown is a 2 x 2 basket weave. Basket weave fabrics, like plain weave fabrics, also have a checkered appearance.

10 Twill Weave 10Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 3/1 twill, as used for denim. Wikimedia Commons, A twill weave can be identified by its diagonal lines. The diagonal rib created by the stair-step of the twill weave is called a wale. Examples of twill weave fabrics: Denim Chino Herringbone Houndstooth Drill Gabardine Serge Tweed

11 Satin Weave Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 11 Satin weave. The History and Principles of Weaving by Hand and by Power, {{US-PD}} Satin weave is characterized by long floats of warp yarn. The warp yarn goes over four weft yarns before being woven under a single weft yarn. There is a simple 4 over, 1 under pattern. This pattern creates long floats of warp yarn that create a soft hand and light- reflecting sheen. Satin fabric is made from long filament fibers in either polyester or silk. When a satin weave is used on a fiber with a short staple, such as cotton, it is referred to as sateen.

12 Jacquard Weaving Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 12 Jacquard weaving is done on a specialized loom called a Jacquard loom. The Jacquard loom is a mechanical loom that was invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard in The jacquard loom simplifies the process of weaving complicated textile patterns with its punch card system. Fabrics created using jacquard weaving: Matelasse Brocade Damask Silk brocade fabric, Lyon, France, Wikimedia Commons, 2006.

13 Knit Fabric – Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 13 Schematic diagram of a knit fabric. Wikimedia Commons, A fabric made interlocking loops of one or more yarns together by hand with knitting needles or by machine. Examples of knitted fabrics: Tricot Jersey Knit Double Knit Stockinette Balbriggan Rib Knit

14 Identifying Fabrics Fabrics are identified by both fiber and weave/knit. Example: Taffeta can be made from both silk and polyester. A taffeta fabric would need to be identified as polyester taffeta or silk taffeta. Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 14

15 Swatch Book Directions Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 15 knit woven Fabric Swatch 1.Neatly cut fabric swatch into 2” x 2” square with pinking shears 2.Affix swatch into the designated box using double-sided tape 3.Indicate whether the fabric swatch is knit or woven by placing an X in the appropriate box

16 Copyright © Texas Education Agency, All rights reserved. Images and other multimedia content used with permission. 16 Swatch Book Directions 4. Fill in the remaining blanks with the proper information. Fabric Name:What is the name of the fabric? Fiber Content:Is the fabric made of a single fiber? Is the fabric a blend of fibers? Care:Can it be machine washed? Should it be hand washed? Can it be machine dried? Should it be line dried? Should it be dry cleaned? Uses:Is the fabric best suited for home décor or apparel? Is it best suited for tops, bottoms, dresses, or outer wear? Description of fabric hand and appearance: How does the fabric feel to the touch? What does the fabric look like? Use descriptive words. Concentrate on the appearance of the fabric and its weave, not the print that may be on the fabric.


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