Presentation on theme: "Textiles FabricsBy Grace Nelson Eleanor Jackson And Nancy Laidler."— Presentation transcript:
Textiles FabricsBy Grace Nelson Eleanor Jackson And Nancy Laidler
Fibres and fabrics Fabrics are made from different types of fibres:- Natural fibres – from a natural, renewable sources, such as plants and animals. Is cut into staple lengthsNatural fibres – from a natural, renewable sources, such as plants and animals. Is cut into staple lengths Regenerated fibres – from natural sources, which are treated with chemicals to make fibresRegenerated fibres – from natural sources, which are treated with chemicals to make fibres Synthetic fibres – are man-made from chemicals (which mainly come from coal and oil)Synthetic fibres – are man-made from chemicals (which mainly come from coal and oil) Both regenerated and synthetic fibres are made into filaments. They can be cut to produce staple lengthsBoth regenerated and synthetic fibres are made into filaments. They can be cut to produce staple lengths
Types and properties of natural fibres/fabrics NameOriginDescriptionUses Cotton seed pods of cotton plant Strong(***) absorbent(****) flame resistance(*), easy to care for, cheap, creases easily Denim, calico, chintz, lawn, drill. Jeans, t-shirts, blouses, soft furnishings Silk From cocoon of silk moth Strong(****) absorbent(****) flame resistance(****) smooth, drapes well, expensive Chiffon, crepe, organza, underwear, dresses, shirts, ties Linen Stalks of flax plant Strong(***) Absorbent(****) flame resistance(*) cheap (though price is rising) Lawn, batiste. Trousers, suits dresses, furnishings
Types and properties of regenerated fibres/fabrics NameOriginDescriptionUses Viscose From wood pulp treated with chemicals Strong(**) absorbent(****) Flame resistance(*),drapes well,light, smooth Underwear, dresses, suits,, skirts, linings, soft furnishings. As regenerated fibres are versatile they can be used for almost anything. Acetate Wood pulp treated with acetic acid Strong(**) absorbent(***) flame resistance(*) resistant to sunlight, soft, smooth
Types and properties of synthetic fibres/fabrics NameOriginDescriptionUses Polyester Chemically produced from oil Strong(****), absorbency(*), flame resistant(**), smooth, elastic, crease resistant Sportswear. Often combined with other fibres such as cotton Nylon Chemically produced from two different substances Strong(****), absorbency(*),flame resistant(**),warm, elastic,crease resistant Sportswear, furnishings, carpets, tights, socks Tactel Derived from nylon Strong(****), absorbency(*), flame resistant(**), lightweight Skiwear, lingerie
NameOriginDescriptionUses Acrylic Chemically produced from oil Strong(**) absorbency(*) flame resistance(*), soft, warm Fake fur,knitted clothing, furnishings. Elastane (lycra) A type of polyurethane Strong(***) absorbency(*) flame resistance(*). Extremely elastic. Can stretch to 7 times it’s length. Often combined with other fibres. Sportswear, fashion clothing, underwear. Aramid (Kevlar) Chemically produced Strong(******) absorbency(*) flame resistance(****) 4 times stronger than steel wire. Bullet proof vests, cables, conveyor belts, high performance tyres
Fibres to fabrics - Spinning REGENERATED and SYNTHETIC fibres are made in one of three ways. It depends on the polymer (substance) used. WET SPINNING – The polymer solution is pushed through tiny holes into a chemical bath to form filaments. The chemical causes the fibres to harden. DRY SPINNING - The polymer solution is pushed through tiny holes into a stream of warm air. The warm air causes the fibres to harden. MELT SPINNING – The polymer is melted, then pushed through tiny holes, then cooled to form filaments. The resulting filaments are then spun to produce yarns.
Fibres to fabrics - Woven Woven fabrics have two yarns, the warp and the weft. The warp travels up and down the weave, the weft from right to left. PLAIN WEAVE – is the simplest weave. The weft thread passes over and under the warp thread. SATIN WEAVE – is when the weft thread goes under several warp threads and over one. There are more threads on the surface so the fabric looks shiny. TWILL WEAVE – creates a diagonal pattern on the surface of the fabric. Used to make strong, close weaves such as denim.
Fibres to fabrics - Knitted Knitted fabrics have a looped structure and stretch more than woven fabrics. There are various types: WEFT KNITTING – yarn runs across the fabric, making loops with the row of yarn beneath. Can be produced by hand or machine. E.g. single jersey, ribknit and double jersey. WARP KNITTING – The yarn runs “up” the fabric, rather like the warp yarns of woven fabrics. Can only be made by machine.
Fibres to fabrics – Non-Woven BONDED FABRICS – are made with “webs” of fabric held together by glue, needle-punching or stitch bonding. E.g. interlinings, liners for floppy discs and artificial leathers. FELTING – is an older way of making non-woven fabric. It is made by combining moisture, heat and pressure. Felt is used for many things including carpet underlay, craft material and hats.
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