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FASH 15 textiles basic weaves & fabrics.

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Presentation on theme: "FASH 15 textiles basic weaves & fabrics."— Presentation transcript:

1 FASH 15 textiles basic weaves & fabrics

2 basic weaves & fabrics a fabric is a pliable, planelike structure that can be made into 2- or 3-dimensional products that require some shaping & flexibility fabric quality describes many characteristics: freedom from defects uniform structure & appearance production performance consumer performance important to textile producers, designers, retailers & consumers

3 woven fabrics made with two or more sets of yarns interlaced at right angles warp yarns—yarns in lengthwise direction (ends) filling yarns—yarns in crosswise direction (weft) common characteristics: many different interlacing patterns give interest and texture to fabric yarns can be raveled from adjacent sides fabrics have grain fabrics are relatively stable, with little stretch in warp or filling

4 the loom hand looms air-jet loom rapier loom projectile loom
hand looms air-jet loom rapier loom projectile loom circular loom

5 characteristics of woven fabrics
warp & filling differentiation selvage is always parallel to lengthwise direction (warp) most fabrics have a lower elongation in warp direction warp yarns lie straighter and are more parallel in the fabrics because of loom tension fancy or special-function yarns are usually in the filling direction fabric characteristics may differentiate between the warp and filling directions—EXAMPLE: poplin has filling rib; satin has warp floats warp yarns tend to have higher twist & are similar and more uniform in structure and appearance fabric crimp is usually greater for filling yarns since they must curve over or under warp yarns due to loom operation warp yarn count tends to be higher than filling yarn count if yarn-dyed stripes are in one direction only they tend to be in the warp direction

6 characteristics of woven fabrics
grain—geometry or position of warp yarns relative to filling yarns on-grain fabric has lengthwise grain parallel to warp yarns & crosswise grain parallel to filling yarns off-grain fabrics create problems in production & use—do not drape properly or hang evenly and printed designs are not straight

7 characteristics of woven fabrics
fabric count— number of warp and filling yarns per square inch indication of quality—higher count, better quality balance— ratio of warp yarns to filling yarns in fabric balanced fabric 1:1 selvage— lengthwise self-edge of a fabric formed differently on different looms

8 characteristics of woven fabrics
fabric width— loom determines fabric width handwoven—narrow (27-36 inches) commercial—exceed 60 inches consumer market—45-60 inches or 54-60 fabric weight describes how much a given area or length of fabric weighs important—identify appropriate use & name lightweight/top weight—weigh < 4.0 oz/sq yd medium weight— oz/sq yd heavyweight/bottom weight— weight > 6.0 oz/sq yd

9 naming & diagramming woven fabrics
fabric names are based on: fabric structure fabric weight yarn type yarn balance finishes


11 plain weave simplest of the three basic weaves
formed by yarns at right angles passing alternately over and under each other least expensive weave to produce no technical face or back unless printed general characteristics: tend to wrinkle easily less absorbent than other weaves raveling less of a problem yarn type greatly influences these characteristics CREATE A PLAIN WEAVE

12 balanced plain weave simplest plain weave
warp & filling yarns are same size & same distance apart wider range of end uses than fabrics of any other weave most widely used type of woven fabric can be made in any weight lightweight sheer—georgette, chiffon, voile, organdy, organza lightweight opaque—lawn, batiste, China silk, habutai, challis medium-weight—percale (calico, chintz, cretonne, polished cotton, glazed chintz) muslin, flannelette, outing flannel, gingham, chambray, madras, pongee, honan, ripstop nylon, ripstop taffeta, true crepe heavyweight—weaver’s cloth, homespun, crash, butcher cloth, burlap, hessian, osnaburg, flannel, tweed

13 unbalanced plain weave
significantly more yarns in one direction than the other creates rib—ridges of varying size depending upon number & size of yarns lightweight ribbed fabrics—crepe de chine medium-weight ribbed fabrics—broadcloth, taffeta, shantung heavyweight ribbed fabric—poplin, faille, rep, bengaline, ottoman, grosgrain, bedford cord

14 basket weave made with two or more adjacent warps and two or more fillings interlacing pattern similar to plain—two or more yarns follow same parallel path most common are 2x2 or 4x4 variations include 2x1 and 2x3 fabrics that have a basket weave: dimity oxford cloth sailcloth duck canvas hopsacking monk’s cloth

15 twill weave each warp or filling yarn floats across two or more filling or warp yarns with a progression of interlacings by one to the right or the left forms a distinct diagonal line or wale can be made on a simple loom have technical face & back—face has most pronounced wale fewer interlacings allow yarns to move more freely softer, more pliable & recover better from wrinkles soil shows less on uneven face of twill weave than plain weave CREATE A TWILL WEAVE

16 even-sided twill weave
expose an equal amount of warp and filling yarn on each side of fabric reversible even-sided twill weave fabrics: foulard or surah serge twill flannel sharkskin herringbone houndstooth

17 warp-faced twill weave
have predominance of warp yarns on face stronger & more resistant to abrasion & piling warp-faced twill weave fabrics: lining twill denim jean drill covert chino gabardine cavalry twill fancy twill

18 satin weave each warp floats over four filling yarns and interlaces with the 5th filling yarn with a progression of interlacings by two to the right or the left can be produced on simple loom lustrous because of long floats on surface yarns can be packed very closely together face & back look significantly different high count gives strength, durability, body, firmness, wind repellency fewer interlacings gives pliability and wrinkly resistance, but yarns may snag, slip or unravel easily CREATE A SATIN WEAVE

19 satin weave satin weave fabrics—
satin—warp faced (warp floats cover surface), filament yarns crepe-back satin—crepe yarns give softness & drapeability sateen—spun yarns, come in filling sateen & warp sateen

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