Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Fashion and Textiles. Fibers are the basic unit of all textiles. When fibers are put together to form a continuous strand, a yarn is."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Fashion and Textiles
Fibers are the basic unit of all textiles. When fibers are put together to form a continuous strand, a yarn is made. Yarns are knitted or woven together to make fabrics Fibers YarnTextiles
Each fiber has its own characteristics and properties based on its source and composition. Knowing the characteristics will help you choose the most appropriate fiber for its end use. Ex: bed linen fabrics are much different than towels. One appropriate for comfort, the other for absorption
1. Strength – can withstand pulling and twisting 2. Shrinkage – ability to maintain size 3. Warmth- ability to maintain body temperature 4. Durability – the ability to hold up to repeated usage 5. Absorbency – ability to take in moisture 6. Wrinkle resistance – ability to resist creasing 7. Resiliency – ability to spring back when crushed or wrinkled What types of fabrics or apparel items do we associate with these characteristics?
Natural: coming from plant or animals Manmade or Manufactured: these are cellulose and/or chemical based Can you think of examples of these? Also, some fibers can be a combination of both!
Cotton: made from the cotton plant which can grow almost anywhere. Most historical and widely used. Inexpensive, strong and launders well. Uses: almost anything. Towels, sheets, clothing… Linen: made from flax. First fiber made into fabric. Dates back to Egyptian times. Uses: table cloths, drapes, clothing. Very absorbent and durable. Ramie: known as China Grass also comes from a plant. Fiber is strong, absorbs moisture readily and dries quickly. It adds strength to other fibers. Used in ropes, canvas, hoses… Jute: comes from a plant. It is rough and course. Ex: burlap, covers bulletin boards Wool: made from the fleece or hair of sheep or lambs. Warmest fiber, a natural insulator, strong durable, absorbs moisture without making you feel wet. Also, wrinkle resistant. A good choice for clothing. Silk: the protein fiber obtained by unwinding the cocoons of silkworms. The longest natural fiber(sometimes reaches a thousand yards!!!) Strongest fiber, with a natural shine making it luxurious. It is elastic and wrinkle resistant. Smooth so dirt does not cling to it. Although washable, dry cleaning is usually recommended. Japan is leading producer, but China, Italy, France and Japan also produce large amounts. Cotton plant Flax plant, fiber, yarn
Two factors affect the properties of manufactured fibers: 1. Chemicals used to make them 2. The way the fiber is treated during production
Rayon: Similar to cotton it is soft, durable, absorbent, inexpensive and versatile. It is easy to dye, drapes well. With special treatment can increase in strength and resist wrinkling and shrinking. Many uses: shirts, blouses, lingerie, curtains, rubs, etc. Acetate: looks and feels luxurious. Very crisp and drapes well. Can be dyed easily and is resistant to moths and mildew. Inexpensive, but weak. Excellent for drapes, upholstery and quilted products and linings. Should be dry cleaned. Triacetate: similar to acetate. Can be lustrous, more resistant to sunlight, wrinkles and shrinkage. Perfect for garments requiring permanent pleats. Easy to care for, can be machine or hand washed. Rayon Acetate Triacetate
Nylon: Strong and durable. Elastic, but maintains its shape. Lightweight, luxurious and easy to dye. Low in absorbency so static is a problem. May be uncomfortable in hot weather and does not provide warmth in winter. Examples: hosiery, rain coats, skiwear, tents, etc. Polyester: Resistant to wrinkles, stretching, bleach, sunlight, moths and mildew. Easy to dye, and very strong. Can achieve almost any texture and look. Uncomfortable in hot weather because does not absorb water well. Many apparel uses because it is easily blended. Also ropes, thread, carpets, fire hoses and more! Olefin: Lightest fiber made. Floats on water and low absorption. Resists wrinkles, soil and stains. Perfect for carpeting which is the largest single use of this fiber. Nylon Polyester threadOlefin carpet
Acrylic: used as a wool replacement. Soft, warm and light weight. Resists sunlight, chemicals and wrinkles. Perfect for sweaters, athletic wear, and knitting yarns. Modacrylic: Flame resistant, resists wrinkles and chemicals. Soft warm and easy to dye. Used to make fake fur. Rubber: made either of latex (from the rubber tree) or man made synthetic rubber. Perfect for coats, boots, and gloves because it is waterproof. Spandex: Made entirely from chemicals for its amazing stretch. Resistant to sunlight, oil, perspiration and abrasion. Perfect for swimsuits, underwear, etc. Acrylic spandex rubberModacrylic
The two most common methods of making fabrics are: 1. Weaving 2. Knitting
The process of interlacing yarns at right angles to each other to create a woven fabric. Two sets of yarn are used: WARP AND WEFT(or filling). Warp yarns run lengthwise (up and down) Weft yarns run crosswise (left to right) The Grain is the direction the yarns run. The warp and weft create the grain. The Lengthwise grain is how we lay out patterns for sewing. The cross wise grain has a little more stretch because it goes across your body. The Selvage is where the end of the weft yarns meet. This is the edge of your fabric. The Bias of a fabric is the diagonal of the warp and weft and provides the most stretch and movement. Wovens can be created by hand, machine or loom. We will complete a potholder project to demonstrate. Characteristics to remember about wovens: They unravel easily(like fringed denim) and they can be torn in a straight line. See demonstration.
When talking about fabrics two of the most important descriptive words are drape and hand. DRAPE: refers to how the fabric hangs HAND: refers to how the fabric feels Bumpy, smooth, soft, textured
1.Plain weave: Over one under one pattern. Similar to a tennis racket. This type of fabric is strong, durable and easy to sew. A version of this is the basket weave. See samples Types of plain weave fabrics include: Organdy Gingham Voile Percale Poplin Taffeta Chambray Muslin Broadcloth Oxford Chiffon See swatches Gingham chambray taffeta
2. Twill weave: when a yarn in one direction floats over two or more yarns in the other direction. They form a visual of a distinct diagonal line. These weaves are durable, resist wrinkles and soiling. See samples. Examples include: Gabardine Herringbone Denim Flannel Denim – notice diagonal weave Herringbone coat flannel Gabardine coat
Satin Weave: made by floating a yarn from one direction over four or more yarns from the other direction and then under one yarn. This makes fabrics with smooth surfaces. Ideal for luxurious dresses, expensive pajamas and even bedding. See samples Examples: Satin or Sateen
Knitting is created by looping yarns together. One loop is pulled through another loop to create a chain. See demonstration. The combination of loops can create different effects. There is MACHINE KNITTING and HAND KNITTING. Some knits are done flat and some round (like socks – no seams!!!) The two basic types of knitting are WARP AND WEFT Machine knitting flat Hand knitting Machine knitting- round
Warp knits: Loops are made by one or more sets of yarns. Each set of warp yarns is as wide as the fabric. An entire row is made at one time. Warp knits are made on flat machines and tend to be less elastic and lighter in weight than weft knits. If a loop is broken, warp knits will not run, but will snag if a loop is pulled. Edges do not always need to be sewn for finishing. See example. Common warp knits include: Tricot jersey Lace Power net Raschel knit (see samples) Tricot jersey Lace Raschel knit Power net
Weft knits: Loops are made as yarn is added in crosswise direction. This can be done by hand or machine (see demonstration). Weft knitting machines can be circular or flat. Circular knits are great for certain sweaters, t-shirts, socks, dresses, as well as cuffs and trims for active wear. Single knits and double knits are the most common types. Weft knits unravel easily. See swatches and example. Types of weft knits include: Double knit, Jersey, Ribs, velour, purl, stockinette, terry cloth, and pile knits. Double knit – thick layers of knit on both sides. Jersey knit is most versatile and popular – ex.T-shirts Rib knits – form ridges Terry cloth – towels, juicy couture sweat suits
Some fabrics fit either in the both knit and woven category or neither. They have unique finishes and properties. Examples of these include: Felt: when heat and moisture shrink wool fibers Films: sheets of vinyl and urethane used as coatings Bonded fabrics: adhere to backs of other fabrics Quilted fabrics: layering or adding padding between to layers and creating a stitch detail to combine.
Check out this site to brush up on your textile knowledge and get inspired!!!
Unfinished cloth is called greige goods. This is the state the fabric, yarn or fiber is in before it receives any color or treatment.
Color is added to fabrics and yarns in a variety of ways 1. Fiber dyeing: fibers are dyed before they are spun into yarns 2. Yarn dyeing: Yarn is dyed before being formed into fabrics. Most plaids and stripes are yarn dyed. They look similar on front as back. Yarn dyes can also be “space dyed” which is common in interesting yarns--- These yarns are dyed almost like a tie Dye shirt.
Piece dyeing: most common method. Usually done to fabrics. Allows manufacturers to follow trends more readily. Dye colors can be followed more closely. Dyes color different fibers different ways. If different combos of fibers are in the same dye bath results will change and this is called cross dyeing. Garment dyeing: Finished garment is made of un-dyed yarns and entire garment is dyed after construction. Manufacturers can make fast deliveries of popular colors this way. T-shirts are perfect examples. Piece dyeing Garment dyeing – think tie dye
Printing: Adding color, pattern or design to the surface of fabrics. With printing the wrong side of the fabric is usually much lighter or a different color. There are two types of printing: Roller and Rotary print Roller printing Rotary printing
Choosing colors for fibers, textiles and garments can be difficult. There are lots of fashion forecasting sites out there that specialize in this. In your free time it might be fun to check out some sites and see what color trends and prints are headed our way. and Matching colors to fibers is also difficult. As you learned not all fibers take dye the same way. There is a company known as Pantone that sells color chips much like you would by at the paint store to those in the apparel, textile and home industry. Check out their link for the newest colors and swatches to match up your prints and dyes: Prints are fun and interesting. If you have always wanted to create your own print check out this site: